• Review |

    To efficiently prevent cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially cervical cancer, effective vaccines and high vaccination coverage are required. This Review provides insight into virological, immunological and strategical progress in HPV vaccines as well as implementation and potential advances.

    • Richard B. S. Roden
    •  & Peter L. Stern
  • Review |

    Head and neck cancer is an unexpectedly heterogeneous disease. In this Review, Leemans, Snijders and Brakenhoff provide an update on the molecular biology of head and neck cancer, outline the role of human papillomavirus and discuss the functional role of genes involved in malignant progression to identify subgroups to personalize treatment.

    • C. René Leemans
    • , Peter J. F. Snijders
    •  & Ruud H. Brakenhoff
  • Review |

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a well-established treatment for many haematopoietic malignancies but often results in life-threatening complications, such as graft-versus-host disease, relapse and infections. This Review discusses the potential role of intestinal microbiota in complications after allo-HSCT.

    • Yusuke Shono
    •  & Marcel R. M. van den Brink
  • Review |

    This Review discusses the mutational landscape and evolution of follicular lymphoma. Deciphering the earliest initiating lesions and the molecular alterations leading to disease progression might help identify the most relevant targets for therapy of these tumours.

    • Sarah Huet
    • , Pierre Sujobert
    •  & Gilles Salles
  • Review |

    In this Review, Hunter et al. discuss how genetic heterogeneity impacts metastatic disease and outline the implications of our current knowledge in this area for future research efforts and therapeutic interventions.

    • Kent W. Hunter
    • , Ruhul Amin
    • , Sarah Deasy
    • , Ngoc-Han Ha
    •  & Lalage Wakefield
  • Review |

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a genetic disorder associated with bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities and an increased risk of developing cancer. In this Review, Nalepa and Clapp describe the roles of FA proteins in maintaining genome homeostasis and explain how dysregulation of the FA pathway through mutations in the FA genes might lead to carcinogenesis.

    • Grzegorz Nalepa
    •  & D. Wade Clapp
  • Review |

    In this Review, Burger and Wiestner describe the latest insights into B cell receptor (BCR) signalling with respect to its contribution to B cell malignancies and discuss how inhibitors that target kinases downstream of the BCR are changing treatment outcomes for patients with B cell neoplasms.

    • Jan A. Burger
    •  & Adrian Wiestner
  • Review |

    This Review describes tumour cell-intrinsic oncogenic pathways implicated in tumour immune evasion and highlights the potential for targeting these pathways to overcome resistance to immunotherapy in various cancer types.

    • Stefani Spranger
    •  & Thomas F. Gajewski
  • Review |

    Ubiquitin ligases (E3s) participate in many cellular processes, including cell cycle progression and cell death. This Review by Senft et al. discusses how deregulation of E3s can lead to tumorigenesis and highlights the opportunities for targeting E3s as an anticancer therapy.

    • Daniela Senft
    • , Jianfei Qi
    •  & Ze'ev A. Ronai
  • Review |

    Inactivating mutations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53 are frequent in cancer. This Review provides a critical overview of reactivating p53 as a therapeutic strategy, describing preclinical and clinical compounds that re-establish the functions of wild-type p53 in tumours.

    • Vladimir J. N. Bykov
    • , Sofi E. Eriksson
    • , Julie Bianchi
    •  & Klas G. Wiman
  • Review |

    Field cancerization underlies the development of many types of cancer. This Review examines the biological mechanisms that drive the evolution of cancerized fields and discusses how measuring field evolution could improve cancer risk prediction in patients with pre-malignant disease.

    • Kit Curtius
    • , Nicholas A. Wright
    •  & Trevor A. Graham
  • Review |

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are functional molecules that regulate physiological programmes in developmental and disease contexts. This Review article discusses the complex networks of interactions that ncRNAs engage in and how these confer oncogenic or tumour-suppressive effects in cancer.

    • Eleni Anastasiadou
    • , Leni S. Jacob
    •  & Frank J. Slack
  • Review |

    Sphingolipids, specifically ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, have opposing roles in regulating cancer cell death and survival, respectively. This Review discusses the mechanistic and clinical studies of sphingolipid signalling and metabolism in cancer, highlighting current and emerging therapeutic strategies to target these bioactive lipids.

    • Besim Ogretmen
  • Review |

    This Review by Dewhirst and Secomb describes the current understanding of drug transport to tumour cells and the progress that has been made in developing methods to enhance drug delivery.

    • Mark W. Dewhirst
    •  & Timothy W. Secomb
  • Review |

    Small-cell lung cancer is an aggressive form of lung cancer and has been difficult to treat due to therapy resistance. This Review discusses challenges and recent advances in uncovering molecular changes that allow potentially efficient therapies.

    • Adi F. Gazdar
    • , Paul A. Bunn
    •  & John D. Minna
  • Review |

    Despite advances in targeting oncogenic driver mutations, advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains largely incurable due to therapeutic resistance. This Review focuses on how understanding the mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies in NSCLC can inform improved treatment strategies.

    • Julia Rotow
    •  & Trever G. Bivona
  • Review |

    The adenosinergic pathway is a major immunosuppressive mechanism in the tumour microenvironment. In this Review, Vijayan et al. discuss how targeting components involved in the generation and downstream signalling of extracellular adenosine represents an attractive novel cancer therapy.

    • Dipti Vijayan
    • , Arabella Young
    • , Michele W.L. Teng
    •  & Mark J. Smyth
  • Review |

    This Review by Mitchell et al. summarizes how engineering and the physical sciences have advanced oncology by highlighting four important areas: the physical microenvironment of the tumour, drug delivery, cellular and molecular imaging, and microfluidics and microfabrication.

    • Michael J. Mitchell
    • , Rakesh K. Jain
    •  & Robert Langer
  • Review |

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) uncover the impact of genetic variation on the risk of many common cancers. This Review discusses current insights and how understanding the biological basis of these associations is required to maximise the clinical benefit of GWAS.

    • Amit Sud
    • , Ben Kinnersley
    •  & Richard S. Houlston
  • Review |

    Several types of human tumour are dependent on mutations in BRAF. This led to the development of RAF inhibitors, which prolong patient survival but are limited by resistance. This Review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of BRAF oncogenic signalling, RAF inhibitor activity and the implementation of this knowledge for the development of next-generation inhibitors.

    • Zoi Karoulia
    • , Evripidis Gavathiotis
    •  & Poulikos I. Poulikakos
  • Review |

    This Review by Corbet and Feron summarizes recent data showing that tumour acidosis influences cancer metabolism and contributes to cancer progression; it also highlights advances in therapeutic modalities aimed at either inhibiting or exploiting tumour acidification.

    • Cyril Corbet
    •  & Olivier Feron
  • Review |

    Understanding how high-risk multiple myeloma evolves from more therapeutically tractable stages is crucial for improving outcomes for patients. This Review discusses the evolution of high-risk disease, how it may be diagnosed and how this might improve treatment.

    • Charlotte Pawlyn
    •  & Gareth J. Morgan
  • Review |

    Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms occur as a late complication following chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy administered for a primary condition. In this Review, McNerney et al. discuss recent studies that have improved our understanding of the aetiology of this disease.

    • Megan E. McNerney
    • , Lucy A. Godley
    •  & Michelle M. Le Beau