Volume 1 Issue 11 November 2015

Volume 1 Issue 11

Tree ring circus

The wood of conifer trees is mainly composed of thick-walled cells called tracheids. After their production by the cambium, new tracheids enlarge (in a few days) and then build their thick and lignified secondary walls (stained red). This is the basis for the significant time lag between the increase in size and the increase in biomass in tree stems.

See Henri E. Cuny et al. 1, 15160 (2015).

Image: Marleen Vos, modified by Henri E. Cuny. Cover design: Karen Moore

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Plants are often the subjects of paintings but their involvement in literature and drama is rarely centre stage. With the inauguration of a new literary festival it is time for a reassessment of the plant kingdom's dramatic potential.

Comment

  • Comment |

    Plant science has an important part to play in meeting the global food security challenge. But, advances will be most effective if better coupled with agronomic science and the broader food security agenda.

    • John S. I. Ingram
    •  & John R. Porter

Research Highlights

News & Views

  • News and Views |

    Plants contain several tissue-specific decentralized but communicating ‘clocks’. These control developmental outputs in response to environmental change: the vasculature clock for photoperiodic control of flowering, and the epidermis clock for temperature-dependent elongation.

    • C. Robertson McClung
  • News and Views |

    Plants adapt to changing environments by optimizing the fitness costs associated with key biological functions. A comparison of a laboratory strain with other wild Australian accessions of Nicotiana benthamiana reveals that trading viral defence for vigour confers an adaptive advantage in arid habitats.

    • Alberto Carbonell
  • News and Views |

    Wood formation drives the storage of carbon in trees and other woody plants. A detailed analysis of conifer xylem tissue formation reveals how the intra-annual dynamics of biomass production are recorded in wood.

    • Ute Sass-Klaassen

Reviews

  • Perspective |

    High-resolution microscopies have recently provided new insights into the structure of the chloroplast thylakoid membrane. Its dynamics are vital to its function as the site of photosynthesis and so the source of energy for almost all life on earth.

    • Alexander V. Ruban
    •  & Matthew P. Johnson

Research

  • Article |

    Wood is the main terrestrial biotic reservoir for long-term carbon sequestration. High-resolution cellular-based measurements of wood formation dynamics in coniferous forests in northeastern France suggest that woody biomass production lags stem-girth expansion by over a month

    • Henri E. Cuny
    • , Cyrille B. K. Rathgeber
    • , David Frank
    • , Patrick Fonti
    • , Harri Mäkinen
    • , Peter Prislan
    • , Sergio Rossi
    • , Edurne Martinez del Castillo
    • , Filipe Campelo
    • , Hanuš Vavrčík
    • , Jesus Julio Camarero
    • , Marina V. Bryukhanova
    • , Tuula Jyske
    • , Jožica Gričar
    • , Vladimír Gryc
    • , Martin De Luis
    • , Joana Vieira
    • , Katarina Čufar
    • , Alexander V. Kirdyanov
    • , Walter Oberhuber
    • , Vaclav Treml
    • , Jian-Guo Huang
    • , Xiaoxia Li
    • , Irene Swidrak
    • , Annie Deslauriers
    • , Eryuan Liang
    • , Pekka Nöjd
    • , Andreas Gruber
    • , Cristina Nabais
    • , Hubert Morin
    • , Cornelia Krause
    • , Gregory King
    •  & Meriem Fournier

    Collection:

  • Article |

    The model and geographic location(s) of Asian rice domestication has been a controversial topic. Now a reanalysis of a previously published large genomic dataset, supports three geographically separate domestications of Asian rice.

    • Peter Civáň
    • , Hayley Craig
    • , Cymon J. Cox
    •  & Terence A. Brown
  • Article |

    Circadian clocks regulate many biological processes. The authors show the existence of two decentralized tissue-specific clocks: one in the vasculature for photoperiodic control of flowering, one in the epidermis for temperature-dependant elongation.

    • Hanako Shimizu
    • , Kana Katayama
    • , Tomoko Koto
    • , Kotaro Torii
    • , Takashi Araki
    •  & Motomu Endo
  • Article |

    The viral hypersensitivity of Nicotiana benthamiana results from an insertion in the RNA polymerase, Rdr1. Population analyses showed that the Rdr1 insertion originated from a population that trades viral defence for vigour in an extreme Australian habitat.

    • Julia Bally
    • , Kenlee Nakasugi
    • , Fangzhi Jia
    • , Hyungtaek Jung
    • , Simon Y.W. Ho
    • , Mei Wong
    • , Chloe M. Paul
    • , Fatima Naim
    • , Craig C. Wood
    • , Ross N. Crowhurst
    • , Roger P. Hellens
    • , James L. Dale
    •  & Peter M. Waterhouse
  • Article |

    Plant survival is greatly impaired when oxygen levels are limiting, such as during flooding events. A series of laboratory experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana suggests that the universal stress protein HRU1 coordinates oxygen sensing with ROS signalling under anoxic conditions.

    • Silvia Gonzali
    • , Elena Loreti
    • , Francesco Cardarelli
    • , Giacomo Novi
    • , Sandro Parlanti
    • , Chiara Pucciariello
    • , Laura Bassolino
    • , Valeria Banti
    • , Francesco Licausi
    •  & Pierdomenico Perata
  • Article |

    Morphogenesis needs cellular polarity. In root hair cells initiation, ROPs, DRPs and PIP5K3 are recruited in bulging sterol-enriched membrane domains. A lipid-binding AGC kinase called D6PK modulates this establishment of planar cell polarity.

    • Thomas Stanislas
    • , Anke Hüser
    • , Inês C. R. Barbosa
    • , Christian S. Kiefer
    • , Klaus Brackmann
    • , Stefano Pietra
    • , Anna Gustavsson
    • , Melina Zourelidou
    • , Claus Schwechheimer
    •  & Markus Grebe