Volume 9 Issue 1, January 2013

Volume 9 Issue 1

Photonic crystals efficiently control wave propagation on a wavelength scale, but can become very large when long wavelengths are involved. Metamaterials made of resonant unit cells can, however, confine and guide waves even at scales far below their wavelength. Article p55 IMAGE: FABRICE LEMOULT COVER DESIGN: ALLEN BEATTIE

Editorials

  • Editorial |

    Sir Patrick Moore, presenter of The Sky at Night for 55 years, has died.

  • Editorial |

    Preparations for the construction of an international linear collider have reached another milestone — but is the way ahead clear?

Thesis

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    A technique for detecting the presence of a photon without destroying the quantum message it carries could ultimately lead to a loophole-free test of quantum non-locality.

    • A. I. Lvovsky
  • News & Views |

    Liquid water expands when heated — or cooled — away from a particular temperature that increases when the fluid is stretched. Experiments on water under extreme tension now enable tracking of this distinctive behaviour well into the negative-pressure domain.

    • Pablo G. Debenedetti
  • News & Views |

    The idea of monopoles in spin ice has enjoyed much success in the intermediate temperature regime. Low-temperature measurements now point to the importance of surfaces and impurities in monopole dynamics, in providing extrinsic resistance for monopole currents.

    • Peter Holdsworth

Review

  • Review Article |

    Could biological systems have evolved to find the optimal quantum solutions to the problems thrown at them by nature? This Review presents an overview of the possible quantum effects seen in photosynthesis, avian magnetoreception and several other biological systems.

    • Neill Lambert
    • , Yueh-Nan Chen
    • , Yuan-Chung Cheng
    • , Che-Ming Li
    • , Guang-Yin Chen
    •  & Franco Nori

Letters

  • Letter |

    Many-particle entangled states and entanglement between continuous properties are valuable resources for quantum information, but are notoriously difficult to generate. An experiment now entangles the energy and emission times of three photons, creating generalized Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen correlations.

    • L. K. Shalm
    • , D. R. Hamel
    • , Z. Yan
    • , C. Simon
    • , K. J. Resch
    •  & T. Jennewein
  • Letter |

    Long-distance quantum communication is limited by optical absorption and scattering. A noiseless amplifier for photonic qubits coherently encoded across two optical modes is now demonstrated, which could combat this negative effect. The method enabled a fivefold increase in the transmission fidelity of the polarization state of a single photon.

    • S. Kocsis
    • , G. Y. Xiang
    • , T. C. Ralph
    •  & G. J. Pryde
  • Letter |

    Entanglement is an important resource in quantum-enhanced technologies, but it is difficult to generate, especially in solid-state systems. An experiment now demonstrates the entanglement of two nuclear spins via a parity measurement of the electron spin in a nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond.

    • Wolfgang Pfaff
    • , Tim H. Taminiau
    • , Lucio Robledo
    • , Hannes Bernien
    • , Matthew Markham
    • , Daniel J. Twitchen
    •  & Ronald Hanson
  • Letter |

    In the highly degenerate spin-ice ground state, flipped spins give rise to magnetic charges, or monopoles, which form a measurable current in a magnetic field. The low-temperature relaxation dynamics of spin-ice materials now reveal that defects can impede monopole flow—creating a magnetic analogue of electrical resistance.

    • H. M. Revell
    • , L. R. Yaraskavitch
    • , J. D. Mason
    • , K. A. Ross
    • , H. M. L. Noad
    • , H. A. Dabkowska
    • , B. D. Gaulin
    • , P. Henelius
    •  & J. B. Kycia
  • Letter |

    Liquid water inclusions in quartz can withstand negative pressures in excess of −100 MPa. Other techniques report much lower thresholds—suggesting that water in inclusions is stabilized by impurity effects. Experiments on a single inclusion in quartz now provide evidence consistent with a homogeneous mechanism for cavitation.

    • Mouna El Mekki Azouzi
    • , Claire Ramboz
    • , Jean-François Lenain
    •  & Frédéric Caupin

Articles

  • Article |

    Different experimental probes have found different bosonic modes in the iron-based superconductors. A scanning tunnelling spectroscopy study of two separate superconductors now links the tunnelling mode with the ‘neutron resonance’, both of which vanish when superconductivity disappears.

    • Zhenyu Wang
    • , Huan Yang
    • , Delong Fang
    • , Bing Shen
    • , Qiang-Hua Wang
    • , Lei Shan
    • , Chenglin Zhang
    • , Pengcheng Dai
    •  & Hai-Hu Wen
  • Article |

    The electronic properties of graphene are spatially controlled from metallic to semiconducting by patterning steps into the underlying silicon carbide substrate. This bottom-up approach could be the basis for integrated graphene electronics.

    • J. Hicks
    • , A. Tejeda
    • , A. Taleb-Ibrahimi
    • , M. S. Nevius
    • , F. Wang
    • , K. Shepperd
    • , J. Palmer
    • , F. Bertran
    • , P. Le Fèvre
    • , J. Kunc
    • , W. A. de Heer
    • , C. Berger
    •  & E. H. Conrad
  • Article |

    Photonic crystals efficiently control wave propagation on a wavelength scale, but this means they can become very large when long wavelengths are involved. Metamaterials made of resonant unit cells can confine and guide waves even at scales far below their wavelength.

    • Fabrice Lemoult
    • , Nadège Kaina
    • , Mathias Fink
    •  & Geoffroy Lerosey