Volume 7 Issue 5, May 2013

Volume 7 Issue 5

Scientists report a polymer-based optoelectronic interface that can restore light sensitivity to the retinas of blind rats, highlighting the potential for retinal implants to be made from all-organic biocompatible materials, rather than inorganic semiconductors such as silicon.

Article p400

IMAGE: NICHOLAS DRING AND LUCA

MARAGLIANO (FONDAZIONE ISTITUTO

ITALIANO DI TECNOLOGIA, GENOVA, ITALY)

COVER DESIGN: TOM WILSON

Editorial

Commentary

  • Commentary |

    Governments are demanding more value for money from scientists, which is putting fundamental research under increasing pressure. Scientists should know how to champion it more effectively.

    • John M. Dudley

Books and Arts

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    A convenient optical scheme for compressing the bandwidth and tuning the frequency of single photons could allow photon qubits to be used in matter-based quantum memories. This development is also an important step towards arbitrary waveform generation of quantum states of light.

    • Matthew Eisaman
  • News & Views |

    The damping of surface plasmons hinders the realization of nanophotonic devices. Researchers have now uncovered some of the mid-infrared damping mechanisms for plasmons in graphene, which offer a number of unique and interesting properties.

    • Hrvoje Buljan
    • , Marinko Jablan
    •  & Marin Soljačić
  • News & Views |

    Cooling materials using interaction with light has come a long way in the past 20 years. Researchers at the recent 2013 Photonics West showed that they can cool new types of materials and more can be expected in the future using new approaches.

    • David Pile
  • News & Views |

    Using photons to disseminate encryption codes with complete security is one of the great successes of quantum information science. It has now been shown that long-distance cryptographic communication is just as effective when the scheme involves measuring the wave properties of light, rather than its particle properties.

    • P. K. Lam
    •  & T. C. Ralph

Review

  • Review Article |

    This Review summarizes the simultaneous transmission of several independent spatial channels of light along optical fibres to expand the data-carrying capacity of optical communications. Recent results achieved in both multicore and multimode optical fibres are documented.

    • D. J. Richardson
    • , J. M. Fini
    •  & L. E. Nelson

Letters

  • Letter |

    Researchers demonstrate bandwidth compression of single photons from 1740 GHz to 43 GHz, and tuning the center wavelength from 379 nm to 402 nm. The scheme relies on sum-frequency generation with frequency-chirped laser pulses. This technique enables interfacing between different quantum systems whose absorption and emission spectral properties are mismatched.

    • J. Lavoie
    • , J. M. Donohue
    • , L. G. Wright
    • , A. Fedrizzi
    •  & K. J. Resch
  • Letter |

    A three-dimensional spectroscopic sensor is demonstrated that uses a polarization-resolved scattering technique to determine the location and orientation of small particles. It exploits strong Fano resonance between a pair of particles, one barely visible and another that is relatively bright, to obtain nanoscale orientation information.

    • Farbod Shafiei
    • , Chihhui Wu
    • , Yanwen Wu
    • , Alexander B. Khanikaev
    • , Patrick Putzke
    • , Akshay Singh
    • , Xiaoqin Li
    •  & Gennady Shvets
  • Letter |

    Researchers realize a quantum logic gate by performing all-optical coherent control of the exciton states of an InAs quantum dot in a photonic crystal cavity in the strong-coupling regime. Their demonstrations represent an important step towards realizing robust and scalable quantum networks and generating strong photon-photon interactions.

    • Hyochul Kim
    • , Ranojoy Bose
    • , Thomas C. Shen
    • , Glenn S. Solomon
    •  & Edo Waks
  • Letter |

    Researchers demonstrate continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of optical fibre. They develop a detection system based on homodyne detectors to achieve an unprecedented level of stability and implement new codes tailored to perform secure communication optimally in a range of signal-to-noise ratios corresponding to long distances.

    • Paul Jouguet
    • , Sébastien Kunz-Jacques
    • , Anthony Leverrier
    • , Philippe Grangier
    •  & Eleni Diamanti
  • Letter |

    Researchers demonstrate the feasibility of BB84 quantum key distribution between a plane and a ground station. Establishing a stable, low-noise quantum communication channel with the plane moving at 290 km/h over a distance of 20 km (4 mrad s−1), the results are representative for typical communication links to satellites.

    • Sebastian Nauerth
    • , Florian Moll
    • , Markus Rau
    • , Christian Fuchs
    • , Joachim Horwath
    • , Stefan Frick
    •  & Harald Weinfurter

Articles

  • Article |

    Full-scale verifications for establishing quantum cryptography communication via satellites are reported. Three independent experiments using a hot-air balloon are performed: on a rapidly moving platform over a distance of 40 km, on a floating platform over a distance of 20 km, and over 96 km in air with a huge loss.

    • Jian-Yu Wang
    • , Bin Yang
    • , Sheng-Kai Liao
    • , Liang Zhang
    • , Qi Shen
    • , Xiao-Fang Hu
    • , Jin-Cai Wu
    • , Shi-Ji Yang
    • , Hao Jiang
    • , Yan-Lin Tang
    • , Bo Zhong
    • , Hao Liang
    • , Wei-Yue Liu
    • , Yi-Hua Hu
    • , Yong-Mei Huang
    • , Bo Qi
    • , Ji-Gang Ren
    • , Ge-Sheng Pan
    • , Juan Yin
    • , Jian-Jun Jia
    • , Yu-Ao Chen
    • , Kai Chen
    • , Cheng-Zhi Peng
    •  & Jian-Wei Pan
  • Article |

    Researchers clarify damping pathways for mid-infrared graphene plasmons, including graphene intrinsic optical phonons and edge scattering. They also demonstrate the guiding of mid-infrared graphene plasmons in 50-nm-wide structures with an electromagnetic mode area of 10−3 μm2 and a propagation length of 200 nm.

    • Hugen Yan
    • , Tony Low
    • , Wenjuan Zhu
    • , Yanqing Wu
    • , Marcus Freitag
    • , Xuesong Li
    • , Francisco Guinea
    • , Phaedon Avouris
    •  & Fengnian Xia
  • Article |

    The popular organic semiconductor P3HT, which is commonly used in polymer solar cells and photodetectors, is demonstrated to be able to act as a biocompatible optoelectronic interface for the retina of blind rats.

    • Diego Ghezzi
    • , Maria Rosa Antognazza
    • , Rita Maccarone
    • , Sebastiano Bellani
    • , Erica Lanzarini
    • , Nicola Martino
    • , Maurizio Mete
    • , Grazia Pertile
    • , Silvia Bisti
    • , Guglielmo Lanzani
    •  & Fabio Benfenati
  • Article |

    Red quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with an external quantum efficiency of 18%, close to the theoretical maximum of 20%, are reported. Using a layer of zinc oxide nanocrystals provides highly effective electron transport, resulting in devices with a low operating voltage and a high luminous power efficiency of 25 lm W−1.

    • Benjamin S. Mashford
    • , Matthew Stevenson
    • , Zoran Popovic
    • , Charles Hamilton
    • , Zhaoqun Zhou
    • , Craig Breen
    • , Jonathan Steckel
    • , Vladimir Bulovic
    • , Moungi Bawendi
    • , Seth Coe-Sullivan
    •  & Peter T. Kazlas
  • Article |

    Researchers report that light flow is strongly affected by mesoscopic interference in semiconducting nanowire mats in which the scattering length is much shorter than the wavelength of light. By measuring intensity distributions, fluctuations and correlations, they obtain evidence of low conductance and signatures of the onset of Anderson localization.

    • Tom Strudley
    • , Tilman Zehender
    • , Claire Blejean
    • , Erik P. A. M. Bakkers
    •  & Otto L. Muskens

Interview

  • Interview |

    Although there is much debate regarding whether graphene is more suitable than metals for use in plasmonics, the useful operational frequency ranges of these materials are complementary. Nature Photonics spoke with Fengnian Xia about his team's recent work on graphene plasmonics.

Correction

Corrigendum

  • Corrigendum |

    • Yann Cotte
    • , Fatih Toy
    • , Pascal Jourdain
    • , Nicolas Pavillon
    • , Daniel Boss
    • , Pierre Magistretti
    • , Pierre Marquet
    •  & Christian Depeursinge