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An experimental study of the second-harmonic-generation process in a beta barium borate crystal shows that homogeneous optical crystals can exhibit the rich physics of the spin–orbit angular momentum cascade in the nonlinear optical regime.
Moiré lattices optically induced in photorefractive nonlinear media are used to explain the formation of optical solitons under different geometrical conditions controlled by the twisting angle between the constitutive sublattices.
Relativistic 35 MeV electron bunches with charges of 60 pC are accelerated in a terahertz-wave-driven dielectric waveguide. When the terahertz pulse energy is 0.8 μJ, an accelerating gradient of 2 MeV m−1 and energy gain of 10 keV are achieved.
Through the use of a plasmon-active atomically sharp tip and an ultrathin insulating film, and precise junction control in a highly confined nanocavity plasmon field at the scanning tunnelling microscope junction, sub-nanometre-resolved single-molecule near-field photoluminescence imaging with a spatial resolution down to ∼8 Å is achieved.
Deactivation of deep-strong light–matter coupling is achieved by femtosecond switching of terahertz cavities. This disruption leads to pronounced high-frequency polarization oscillations evolving much faster than the oscillation cycle of light.
The findings that the spatial distribution of an optical field with vortex phase profile can be imprinted coherently onto a propagating electron wave reveal new aspects of light–matter interactions and will help develop future single-photon electron spectroscopy.
A strong Brillouin amplification per unit length, observed in a gas-filled hollow-core fibre, is used to realize a low-threshold continuous-wave single-frequency laser that can in principle operate at any wavelength and to demonstrate distributed temperature sensing with no strain cross-sensitivity.
Gold atoms were stripped of up to 72 electrons by irradiating gold foils and nanowire arrays with a relativistic 400 nm laser pulse. This work will open the door to the study of the atomic physics of highly charged atoms in very-high-density plasmas.
Coherent diffractive imaging using broadband illumination is demonstrated at visible and X-ray wavelengths. The method is based on a numerical monochromatization of the broadband diffraction pattern by the regularized inversion of a matrix.
Optical waveforms with a 1.7 octave spectrum and 0.6 optical cycle duration are generated at a central wavelength of 1.4 μm by parametric waveform synthesis. The output pulse energies amount to >500 μJ with fluctuations of 1% r.m.s. over 1,000 shots.
Optical vortices can be generated by applying the winding behaviour of resonances in the momentum space of a photonic crystal slab, which naturally exists and is associated with bound states in the continuum, to modify the phase front of a beam.
Observations of decoherence from thermodynamic noise in microresonator soliton frequency combs and laser cooling that reduces soliton thermal decoherence to far below the ambient-temperature limit are described, linking nonlinear photonics and microscopic fluctuations.
A strain-induced absorption-enhanced MoTe2-based silicon photonic microring-integrated photodetector is demonstrated, featuring high responsivity of ~0.5 A W–1 at 1,550 nm, with a low noise-equivalent power of 90 pW Hz–0.5.
An appropriately designed pulsed beam crossing an interface is shown to enable phenomena including anomalous group-velocity increase in higher-index materials, and tunable group velocity by varying the angle of incidence.
The incorporation of microsphere lasers into heart cells allows all-optical recording of cardiac contraction with cellular resolution. [This summary has been amended from ‘microdisk’ to ‘microsphere’ lasers.]
Owing to the superlattice-induced bandgap and superlattice-enhanced density of states, small-twist-angled (<2°) bilayer graphene exhibits a strong gate-tunable photoresponse in the mid-infrared regime of 5 to 12 μm, reaching an extrinsic peak responsivity of 26 mA W−1 at 12 μm.
A tomographiac approach to second-harmonic-generation imaging on nonlinear structures is demonstrated, with experiments and three-dimensional reconstructions on a beta-barium borate crystal and various biological specimens performed.
By suppressing the second- and third-order intracavity dispersion using an intracavity spectral pulse shaper, a mode-locked laser that emits pure-quartic soliton pulses that arise from the interaction of the fourth-order dispersion and the Kerr nonlinearity is demonstrated.
The first operation of the European X-ray free-electron laser facility accelerator based on superconducting technology is reported. The maximum electron energy is 17.5 GeV. A laser average power of 6 W is achieved at a photon energy of 9.3 keV.
Carefully designed hollow-core antiresonant fibres support a pair of orthogonal polarization modes with a level of purity and cross-coupling that is orders of magnitude lower than other fibre designs and beyond the fundamental Rayleigh scattering limit of glass core fibres.
Combining the advantages of ultrasound and light for fluorescence imaging, an imaging technique termed fluorescence and ultrasound-modulated light correlation, or FLUX, that leverages the dynamic nature of the medium is reported to uniquely resolve fluorophore distribution even when the speckles decorrelate fast.
Nanophotonic microwave synthesizers in the X-band (10 GHz, for radar) and K-band (20 GHz, for 5G), based on integrated soliton microcombs driven by a low-noise fibre laser, link the fields of microwave photonics and integrated microcombs.
Robust terahertz wave transport is demonstrated on a silicon chip using the valley Hall topological phase. Error-free communication is achieved at a data rate of 11 Gbit s−1, enabling real-time transmission of uncompressed 4K high-definition video.
The Review summarizes the progress of hybrid quantum photonics integration in terms of its important design considerations and fabrication approaches, and highlights some successful realizations of key physical resources for building integrated quantum devices, such as quantum teleporters, quantum repeaters and quantum simulators.
A pair of transportable optical lattice clocks with 10−18 uncertainty is developed. The relativistic redshift predicted by the theory of general relativity has been tested at the 10–5 level by the two optical clocks with a height difference of 450 m on the ground.
By exploiting low-contrast fluctuating speckle patterns from extended fluorescence sources using an advanced signal-processing algorithm, functional signals through highly scattering tissues can be extracted.