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In the pathogenic blood stage of infection, Plasmodium falciparum cell-cycle progression is directed by the parasite-specific kinase CRK4. Without active CRK4, DNA replication is inhibited and the nuclei are deformed by spindle-like structures.
See Ganter et al. 2, 17017 (2017)
Image: Markus Ganter, Cover Design: Samantha Whitham
If we are to be successful in keeping priority pathogens at bay in the long term, global responses to antimicrobial resistance should embrace and fund innovative therapeutic strategies that are developed in the basic microbiology laboratory.
The sensor cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS) is well known to recognize viral DNA. In this issue of Nature Microbiology, infection by dengue virus (DENV), which has an RNA genome, is shown to induce mitochondrial DNA release into the cytosol, leading to cGAS activation. In turn, DENV targets cGAS to evade antiviral immunity.
Bacterial specialized metabolites are bioactive molecules with antibacterial or other activities that are of tremendous clinical use. New work has revealed that transcript elongation is a distinct and widespread point of secondary metabolic gene regulation, which has implications for expanding drug discovery.
This Perspective describes how lessons learned from traditional probiotics will inform the next generation of probiotics and live biotherapeutic products and the microorganisms suitable for development, and the regulatory framework required to do so.
The long-term dynamic behaviour of the gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease demonstrates increased deviation from the ‘healthy plane’ when compared to the normal variation observed in healthy individuals.
Marine heterotrophic bacteria produce the signalling molecule dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) via the methyltransferase gene dsyB, implicating bacteria as contributors to the oceanic DMSP pool, in addition to macroalgae and phytoplankton.
The gut membrane-associated protein Mesh controls proliferation of gut bacteria by regulating dual-oxidase expression through an arrestin-mediated MAPK JNK/ERK phosphorylation cascade in Aedes aegypti and Drosophila melanogaster.
This study identifies regulators of the RNA sensor RIG-I. Diverse processes, including the unfolded protein response, Wnt signalling and RNA metabolism, modulate this pathway. The splicing regulator KHSRP is identified as a negative regulator of RIG-I that affects influenza replication in vivo.
Rice dwarf virus capsid protein binds to the outer membrane protein of the obligate symbiont bacterium Sulcia, allowing the virus to hijack the oocyte entry path in rice leafhopper vectors for transovarial transmission.
This study shows that mitochondrial DNA leaks into the cytoplasm during dengue virus infection, activating the DNA sensor cGAS. Viral NS2B targets cGAS for lysosomal degradation, inhibiting type I interferon responses in infected cells.