Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2017

Volume 2 Issue 2

Turning the tide on river blindness

Characterization of the genomes of the parasite Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness, and its Wolbachia symbiont reveals potential therapeutic targets.

See Cotton et al. 2, 16216 (2016)

Image: James Cotton Cover Design: Samantha Whitham

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Encouraging researchers to become activists and engage with the public to combat the rising tide of scientific mistrust is easier said than done. Harder still will be to better enable PhDs to thrive in careers away from science, in the public and private sectors, but doing so could bear substantial fruit in the long-term.

Comments and Opinion

  • Comment |

    Many species of Archaea, Bacteria and eukaryotes are polyploid in natural populations. The mixture of species with unknown but widely varying ploidy levels compromises marker-gene-based analyses of community structures, population dynamics and microbiomes.

    • Jörg Soppa

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Rhythmic colonization of gut bacteria on mucosal surfaces is promoted by time-dependent feeding, and is now shown to drive circadian expression of host genes that are involved in functions such as drug detoxification in the liver.

    • Liping Zhao
    •  & Chenhong Zhang
  • News & Views |

    Growth of Candida albicans on different host carbon sources reveals that the cell wall is a live organelle that can respond to alterations in the environment by masking a cell surface epitope to protect the fungal cell from the host immune response.

    • Jean-Paul Latgé
  • News & Views |

    An effector protein secreted by the intracellular human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis impairs antigen processing in targeted phagocytic cells, resulting in evasion from immune surveillance by a dedicated adaptive immune response.

    • Olivier Neyrolles

Research

  • Article | | open

    Characterization of the genomes of the parasite Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness, and its Wolbachia symbiont reveals potential therapeutic targets.

    • James A. Cotton
    • , Sasisekhar Bennuru
    • , Alexandra Grote
    • , Bhavana Harsha
    • , Alan Tracey
    • , Robin Beech
    • , Stephen R. Doyle
    • , Matthew Dunn
    • , Julie C. Dunning Hotopp
    • , Nancy Holroyd
    • , Taisei Kikuchi
    • , Olivia Lambert
    • , Amruta Mhashilkar
    • , Prudence Mutowo
    • , Nirvana Nursimulu
    • , Jose M. C. Ribeiro
    • , Matthew B. Rogers
    • , Eleanor Stanley
    • , Lakshmipuram S. Swapna
    • , Isheng J. Tsai
    • , Thomas R. Unnasch
    • , Denis Voronin
    • , John Parkinson
    • , Thomas B. Nutman
    • , Elodie Ghedin
    • , Matthew Berriman
    •  & Sara Lustigman
  • Article |

    A genomic comparison of 27 global isolates of Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of river blindness, elucidates its evolutionary history and reveals ancestry informative loci that can differentiate between forest, savanna and admixed isolates.

    • Young-Jun Choi
    • , Rahul Tyagi
    • , Samantha N. McNulty
    • , Bruce A. Rosa
    • , Philip Ozersky
    • , John Martin
    • , Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin
    • , Thomas R. Unnasch
    • , Carmelle T. Norice
    • , Thomas B. Nutman
    • , Gary J. Weil
    • , Peter U. Fischer
    •  & Makedonka Mitreva
  • Article |

    In response to lactate exposure, Candida albicans induces masking of β-glucan, a key PAMP, via a signalling pathway involving the Gpr1 receptor and Crz1 transcription factor.

    • Elizabeth R. Ballou
    • , Gabriela M. Avelar
    • , Delma S. Childers
    • , Joanna Mackie
    • , Judith M. Bain
    • , Jeanette Wagener
    • , Stavroula L. Kastora
    • , Mirela D. Panea
    • , Sarah E. Hardison
    • , Louise A. Walker
    • , Lars P. Erwig
    • , Carol A. Munro
    • , Neil A. R. Gow
    • , Gordon D. Brown
    • , Donna M. MacCallum
    •  & Alistair J. P. Brown
  • Article |

    Mice made susceptible to MERS-CoV, using CRISPR–Cas9 to alter the gene encoding the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor, allow efficient viral replication in the lungs and display symptoms indicative of severe acute respiratory stress.

    • Adam S. Cockrell
    • , Boyd L. Yount
    • , Trevor Scobey
    • , Kara Jensen
    • , Madeline Douglas
    • , Anne Beall
    • , Xian-Chun Tang
    • , Wayne A. Marasco
    • , Mark T. Heise
    •  & Ralph S. Baric
  • Article |

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Esx-3 secretion substrate, EsxH, inhibits ESCRT function and blocks efficient antigen presentation to T cells during infection.

    • Cynthia Portal-Celhay
    • , JoAnn M. Tufariello
    • , Smita Srivastava
    • , Aleena Zahra
    • , Thais Klevorn
    • , Patricia S. Grace
    • , Alka Mehra
    • , Heidi S. Park
    • , Joel D. Ernst
    • , William R. Jacobs Jr
    •  & Jennifer A. Philips
  • Article |

    Dusp6-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Transfer of the faecal microbiota from Dusp6-deficient mice increases energy expenditure and reduces weight gain of recipient germ-free wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet.

    • Jhen-Wei Ruan
    • , Sarah Statt
    • , Chih-Ting Huang
    • , Yi-Ting Tsai
    • , Cheng-Chin Kuo
    • , Hong-Lin Chan
    • , Yu-Chieh Liao
    • , Tse-Hua Tan
    •  & Cheng-Yuan Kao
  • Article |

    A minimal bacterial community has been defined that provides colonization resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium once established in germ-free mice to a similar extent as a conventional microbial community.

    • Sandrine Brugiroux
    • , Markus Beutler
    • , Carina Pfann
    • , Debora Garzetti
    • , Hans-Joachim Ruscheweyh
    • , Diana Ring
    • , Manuel Diehl
    • , Simone Herp
    • , Yvonne Lötscher
    • , Saib Hussain
    • , Boyke Bunk
    • , Rüdiger Pukall
    • , Daniel H. Huson
    • , Philipp C. Münch
    • , Alice C. McHardy
    • , Kathy D. McCoy
    • , Andrew J. Macpherson
    • , Alexander Loy
    • , Thomas Clavel
    • , David Berry
    •  & Bärbel Stecher
  • Article |

    The cryo-EM structure of an HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody from an elite neutralizer reveals the fusion peptide of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) as a site of vulnerability that may be explored by future therapies.

    • Marit J. van Gils
    • , Tom L. G. M. van den Kerkhof
    • , Gabriel Ozorowski
    • , Christopher A. Cottrell
    • , Devin Sok
    • , Matthias Pauthner
    • , Jesper Pallesen
    • , Natalia de Val
    • , Anila Yasmeen
    • , Steven W. de Taeye
    • , Anna Schorcht
    • , Stephanie Gumbs
    • , Inez Johanna
    • , Karen Saye-Francisco
    • , Chi-Hui Liang
    • , Elise Landais
    • , Xiaoyan Nie
    • , Laura K. Pritchard
    • , Max Crispin
    • , Garnett Kelsoe
    • , Ian A. Wilson
    • , Hanneke Schuitemaker
    • , Per Johan Klasse
    • , John P. Moore
    • , Dennis R. Burton
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    •  & Rogier W. Sanders
  • Article |

    Single-cell RNA-seq finds a pro-inflammatory M1 polarized immune response in macrophages infected with actively replicating Salmonella and an anti-inflammatory M2-like response in uninfected bystanders or cells with non-replicating bacteria.

    • Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba
    • , Lei Li
    • , Alexander J. Westermann
    • , Silke Appenzeller
    • , Daphne A. C. Stapels
    • , Leon N. Schulte
    • , Sophie Helaine
    •  & Jörg Vogel
  • Article |

    The Aspergillus fumigatus surface protein CalA mediates pulmonary invasion by interacting with integrin α5β1 on the surface of epithelial and endothelial cells, inducing endocytosis and enhancing virulence.

    • Hong Liu
    • , Mark J. Lee
    • , Norma V. Solis
    • , Quynh T. Phan
    • , Marc Swidergall
    • , Benjamin Ralph
    • , Ashraf S. Ibrahim
    • , Donald C. Sheppard
    •  & Scott G. Filler
  • Article |

    A small-molecule inhibitor that blocks the ATPase activity of the cellular human transcription/export complex (hTREX) protein UAP56 prevents the formation of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) viral ribonucleoprotein particles (vRNPs)

    • Sophie Schumann
    • , Brian R. Jackson
    • , Ian Yule
    • , Steven K. Whitehead
    • , Charlotte Revill
    • , Richard Foster
    •  & Adrian Whitehouse
  • Article |

    Phylogenetic analysis defines the population and transmission structure of Listeria monocytogenes isolates and creates a global framework for epidemiological surveillance.Phylogenetic analysis defines the population and transmission structure of Listeria monocytogenes isolates and creates a global framework for epidemiological surveillance.

    • Alexandra Moura
    • , Alexis Criscuolo
    • , Hannes Pouseele
    • , Mylène M. Maury
    • , Alexandre Leclercq
    • , Cheryl Tarr
    • , Jonas T. Björkman
    • , Timothy Dallman
    • , Aleisha Reimer
    • , Vincent Enouf
    • , Elise Larsonneur
    • , Heather Carleton
    • , Hélène Bracq-Dieye
    • , Lee S. Katz
    • , Louis Jones
    • , Marie Touchon
    • , Mathieu Tourdjman
    • , Matthew Walker
    • , Steven Stroika
    • , Thomas Cantinelli
    • , Viviane Chenal-Francisque
    • , Zuzana Kucerova
    • , Eduardo P. C. Rocha
    • , Celine Nadon
    • , Kathie Grant
    • , Eva M. Nielsen
    • , Bruno Pot
    • , Peter Gerner-Smidt
    • , Marc Lecuit
    •  & Sylvain Brisse
  • Letter |

    Study of the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse system reveals that early life history impacts mouse gut microbiome composition and although dietary changes have only a moderate effect on the microbiome, it does shape the gut metabolome.

    • Antoine M. Snijders
    • , Sasha A. Langley
    • , Young-Mo Kim
    • , Colin J. Brislawn
    • , Cecilia Noecker
    • , Erika M. Zink
    • , Sarah J. Fansler
    • , Cameron P. Casey
    • , Darla R. Miller
    • , Yurong Huang
    • , Gary H. Karpen
    • , Susan E. Celniker
    • , James B. Brown
    • , Elhanan Borenstein
    • , Janet K. Jansson
    • , Thomas O. Metz
    •  & Jian-Hua Mao
  • Letter |

    Palindromic nucleotide sequences are not present at individual integration sites for the retroviruses HTLV-1 and HIV-1, but arise in the population average owing to a non-palindromic motif found in roughly equal proportions on the plus and minus strands.

    • Paul D. W. Kirk
    • , Maxime Huvet
    • , Anat Melamed
    • , Goedele N. Maertens
    •  & Charles R. M. Bangham

Amendments and Corrections