Volume 2 Issue 10 October 2017

Volume 2 Issue 10

Viral solar systems

Isolation of a cyanophage encoding photosystem I (PSI) and II (PSII) genes reveals that both PSI and PSII gene products are expressed during infection and inserted into host cyanobacterial membranes, resulting in enhanced electron flow. Phage carrying these PSI and PSII genes are abundant in marine environments.

See Fridman et al. 2, 1350–1357 (2017)

Image: Gur Hevroni, Cover Design: Samantha Whitham

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Translating scientific discoveries into real world solutions is a goal shared by researchers, governments, industry and the public alike. While continued support for basic research is critical, improvements in the funding, evaluation and publication of translational work are also needed to fully realize the promise of applied research.

News and Views

  • News and Views |

    The Streptococcus pyogenes surface M protein is a critical multifunctional virulence factor. Recent work sheds light on a new unexpected function of the M protein in activating the host inflammasome to induce macrophage cell death and promote infection.

    • Madeleine W. Cunningham
  • News and Views |

    The goal of malaria eradication is threatened by drug resistance. Now, two studies characterize Plasmodium falciparum PKG inhibitors and hexahydroquinolines as antimalarial compounds that could block transmission and help mitigate the risk of parasite escape via drug resistance.

    • Thierry Diagana
    •  & Catherine Jones
  • News and Views |

    The study of phages that pose a threat to the cheese industry, which enabled the original demonstration that CRISPR–Cas systems work as adaptive immune systems in bacteria, now leads to the identification of a new anti-CRISPR that inhibits Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    • Alan R. Davidson
  • News and Views |

    A newly described plasmid, which encodes proteins facilitating its packaging and cell-to-cell transfer via membrane vesicles, challenges the way we think about the delineation of viruses, plasmids and extracellular vesicles.

    • Patrick Forterre
    • , Violette Da Cunha
    •  & Ryan Catchpole
  • News and Views |

    Influenza B virus causes substantial illness globally, particularly in children. Treatment options are limited, as the most widely used antiviral drug appears to be less effective than against influenza A. A new antibody targeting the influenza B neuraminidase shows promise in mice as a therapeutic option.

    • Aeron C. Hurt
    •  & Kanta Subbarao

Research

  • Letter |

    Isolation of a cyanophage encoding photosystem I genes reveals that these are expressed during infection and inserted into host membranes, resulting in enhanced electron flow, and that phage carrying these genes are abundant in marine environments.

    • Svetlana Fridman
    • , José Flores-Uribe
    • , Shirley Larom
    • , Onit Alalouf
    • , Oded Liran
    • , Iftach Yacoby
    • , Faris Salama
    • , Benjamin Bailleul
    • , Fabrice Rappaport
    • , Tamar Ziv
    • , Itai Sharon
    • , Francisco M. Cornejo-Castillo
    • , Alon Philosof
    • , Christopher L. Dupont
    • , Pablo Sánchez
    • , Silvia G. Acinas
    • , Forest L. Rohwer
    • , Debbie Lindell
    •  & Oded Béjà
  • Letter |

    Toxoplasma gondii uses its proteins RON2, RON4 and RON5 to recruit host proteins, including the ESCRT-I components ALIX and TSG101 to the moving junction, a multimolecular structure that enables invasion.

    • Amandine Guérin
    • , Rosa Milagros Corrales
    • , Michele L. Parker
    • , Mauld H. Lamarque
    • , Damien Jacot
    • , Hiba El Hajj
    • , Dominique Soldati-Favre
    • , Martin J. Boulanger
    •  & Maryse Lebrun
  • Letter |

    Metagenomic analyses reveal that microbial genomes undergo a community-wide transition in size and GC content across a narrow depth range, indicating that nutrient limitation is a major driver in marine microbial genomic and proteomic evolution.

    • Daniel R. Mende
    • , Jessica A. Bryant
    • , Frank O. Aylward
    • , John M. Eppley
    • , Torben Nielsen
    • , David M. Karl
    •  & Edward F. DeLong
  • Letter |

    A virulent phage of Streptococcus thermophilus encodes an anti-CRISPR protein that is active against the CRISPR–Cas9 of multiple bacteria and inhibits the SpCas9 system commonly used for genome engineering.

    • Alexander P. Hynes
    • , Geneviève M. Rousseau
    • , Marie-Laurence Lemay
    • , Philippe Horvath
    • , Dennis A. Romero
    • , Christophe Fremaux
    •  & Sylvain Moineau
  • Article |

    A genome-wide association approach identifies differential biofilm and virulence attributes associated with mortality in two Staphylococcus aureus clonal complexes.

    • Mario Recker
    • , Maisem Laabei
    • , Michelle S. Toleman
    • , Sandra Reuter
    • , Rebecca B. Saunderson
    • , Beth Blane
    • , M. Estee Török
    • , Khadija Ouadi
    • , Emily Stevens
    • , Maho Yokoyama
    • , Joseph Steventon
    • , Luke Thompson
    • , Gregory Milne
    • , Sion Bayliss
    • , Leann Bacon
    • , Sharon J. Peacock
    •  & Ruth C. Massey
  • Article |

    During acute HIV type 1 infection, a subset of γδ T cells that express Δ42PD1 are shown to home to the gut, where they activate innate immunity and inflammation through direct interaction of Δ42PD1 with Toll-like receptor 4. Blockade of this pathway reduces mucosal damage.

    • Allen Ka Loon Cheung
    • , Hau-yee Kwok
    • , Yiru Huang
    • , Min Chen
    • , Yufei Mo
    • , Xilin Wu
    • , Ka-shing Lam
    • , Hoi-Kuan Kong
    • , Terrence Chi Kong Lau
    • , Jingying Zhou
    • , Jingjing Li
    • , Lin Cheng
    • , Boon Kiat Lee
    • , Qiaoli Peng
    • , Xiaofan Lu
    • , Minghui An
    • , Hui Wang
    • , Hong Shang
    • , Boping Zhou
    • , Hao Wu
    • , Aimin Xu
    • , Kwok-Yung Yuen
    •  & Zhiwei Chen
  • Article |

    A new class of drugs, hexahydroquinolines, inhibits host haemoglobin endocytosis by Plasmodium falciparum and displays both therapeutic and transmission-blocking activities.

    • Manu Vanaerschot
    • , Leonardo Lucantoni
    • , Tao Li
    • , Jill M. Combrinck
    • , Andrea Ruecker
    • , T. R. Santha Kumar
    • , Kelly Rubiano
    • , Pedro E. Ferreira
    • , Giulia Siciliano
    • , Sonia Gulati
    • , Philipp P. Henrich
    • , Caroline L. Ng
    • , James M. Murithi
    • , Victoria C. Corey
    • , Sandra Duffy
    • , Ori J. Lieberman
    • , M. Isabel Veiga
    • , Robert E. Sinden
    • , Pietro Alano
    • , Michael J. Delves
    • , Kim Lee Sim
    • , Elizabeth A. Winzeler
    • , Timothy J. Egan
    • , Stephen L. Hoffman
    • , Vicky M. Avery
    •  & David A. Fidock
  • Article |

    This study reports the identification of broadly protective antibodies targeting the influenza B neuraminidase away from its active site. One dose of antibody therapy was more protective in mice than multiple doses of the current standard of care.

    • Teddy John Wohlbold
    • , Kira A. Podolsky
    • , Veronika Chromikova
    • , Ericka Kirkpatrick
    • , Veronica Falconieri
    • , Philip Meade
    • , Fatima Amanat
    • , Jessica Tan
    • , Benjamin R. tenOever
    • , Gene S. Tan
    • , Sriram Subramaniam
    • , Peter Palese
    •  & Florian Krammer
  • Article |

    The group A streptococcal M protein virulence factor induces inflammasome activation during infection.

    • J. Andrés Valderrama
    • , Angelica M. Riestra
    • , Nina J. Gao
    • , Christopher N. LaRock
    • , Naveen Gupta
    • , Syed Raza Ali
    • , Hal M. Hoffman
    • , Partho Ghosh
    •  & Victor Nizet
  • Article |

    Chikungunya virus infection leads to painful arthritis-like joint inflammation. This study shows that the NLRP3 inflammasome is crucial for alphavirus-induced inflammation and its inhibition is an effective therapeutic strategy.

    • Weiqiang Chen
    • , Suan-Sin Foo
    • , Ali Zaid
    • , Terk-Shin Teng
    • , Lara J. Herrero
    • , Stefan Wolf
    • , Kothila Tharmarajah
    • , Luan D. Vu
    • , Caryn van Vreden
    • , Adam Taylor
    • , Joseph R. Freitas
    • , Rachel W. Li
    • , Trent M. Woodruff
    • , Richard Gordon
    • , David M. Ojcius
    • , Helder I. Nakaya
    • , Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
    • , Luke A. J. O’Neill
    • , Avril A. B. Robertson
    • , Nicholas J. King
    • , Andreas Suhrbier
    • , Matthew A. Cooper
    • , Lisa F. P. Ng
    •  & Suresh Mahalingam