Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    This Review highlights some of the advances that have been made towards understanding the complexity of differential interferon (IFN) signalling inputs and outputs as well as some of the strategies viruses use to interfere with or circumvent IFN-induced antiviral responses.

    • Emily V. Mesev
    • , Robert A. LeDesma
    •  & Alexander Ploss
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the potential opportunities for finding new uses as antimicrobials for existing drugs, the approaches used for screening and the scientific, intellectual property and regulatory challenges to be overcome.

    • Maya A. Farha
    •  & Eric D. Brown
  • Review Article |

    This Review Article describes how recent advances in viral genome sequencing and phylogenetics have enabled key issues associated with outbreak epidemiology to be more accurately addressed, and highlights the requirements and challenges for generating, sharing and using such data when tackling a viral outbreak.

    • Nathan D. Grubaugh
    • , Jason T. Ladner
    • , Philippe Lemey
    • , Oliver G. Pybus
    • , Andrew Rambaut
    • , Edward C. Holmes
    •  & Kristian G. Andersen
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the role of the gut, respiratory tract and vaginal microbiota in susceptibility and resistance to infectious diseases.

    • Josie Libertucci
    •  & Vincent B. Young
  • Review Article |

    This Review Article discusses the importance of considering known microbial processes to inform our understanding of the role of microbial communities in ecosystem processes, and a move away from approaches based solely on correlation analyses.

    • Ed K. Hall
    • , Emily S. Bernhardt
    • , Raven L. Bier
    • , Mark A. Bradford
    • , Claudia M. Boot
    • , James B. Cotner
    • , Paul A. del Giorgio
    • , Sarah E. Evans
    • , Emily B. Graham
    • , Stuart E. Jones
    • , Jay T. Lennon
    • , Kenneth J. Locey
    • , Diana Nemergut
    • , Brooke B. Osborne
    • , Jennifer D. Rocca
    • , Joshua P. Schimel
    • , Mark P. Waldrop
    •  & Matthew D. Wallenstein
  • Review Article |

    This Review Article discusses the role of bacteriophages in the marine environment, including interactions with their bacterial hosts and their impact on biogeochemical cycling, and a hypothesis to explain successional host–phage dynamics in marine systems.

    • Mya Breitbart
    • , Chelsea Bonnain
    • , Kema Malki
    •  & Natalie A. Sawaya
  • Review Article |

    This Review Article details various methods that can be used for phylogeny-aware analyses of microbiome datasets, together with online tutorials, including the considerations and challenges of each method depending on the research question.

    • Alex D. Washburne
    • , James T. Morton
    • , Jon Sanders
    • , Daniel McDonald
    • , Qiyun Zhu
    • , Angela M. Oliverio
    •  & Rob Knight
  • Review Article |

    A review of the diversity of disulfide-bond-catalysing systems across prokaryotes.

    • Cristina Landeta
    • , Dana Boyd
    •  & Jon Beckwith
  • Review Article |

    In this Review Article, Horvath and Barrangou describe the discovery of CRISPR–Cas systems as mechanisms of adaptive immunity in prokaryotes and explore the technological applications that have emerged from studying these molecular machines.

    • Rodolphe Barrangou
    •  & Philippe Horvath
  • Review Article |

    This Review Article examines how microorganisms that have key roles in the ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles may respond to anthropogenic changes in the Earth's marine ecosystems.

    • David A. Hutchins
    •  & Feixue Fu
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the pro- and anti-carcinogenic roles played by the microbiota and highlights the therapeutic potential of microorganisms in tumourigenesis.

    • Matthew C. B. Tsilimigras
    • , Anthony Fodor
    •  & Christian Jobin
  • Review Article |

    The symbiosis between UCYN-A and haptophyte picoplankton plays a major role in oceanic nitrogen cycling. Though it bears some resemblance to freshwater examples, making it an interesting marine model, UCYN-A diversity means that many questions remain.

    • Jonathan P. Zehr
    • , Irina N. Shilova
    • , Hanna M. Farnelid
    • , Maria del Carmen Muñoz-Marín
    •  & Kendra A. Turk-Kubo
  • Review Article |

    Optical and force nanoscopy enable visualization of intracellular and extracellular microbial structures with unprecedented resolution. This Review discusses the principles, advantages and limitations of the main optical and force nanoscopy techniques available.

    • Jie Xiao
    •  & Yves F. Dufrêne
  • Review Article |

    The interconnected processes in Escherichia coli K12 governing protein transport, folding and membrane insertion are reviewed.

    • Jozefien De Geyter
    • , Alexandra Tsirigotaki
    • , Georgia Orfanoudaki
    • , Valentina Zorzini
    • , Anastassios Economou
    •  & Spyridoula Karamanou
  • Review Article |

    Emergence of resistance in eukaryotic microbial pathogens is a major concern. This Review discusses the challenges posed by eukaryotic pathogens, therapies used to target them, emergence of resistance and new approaches to sustaining existing therapies and developing new ones.

    • Alan H. Fairlamb
    • , Neil A. R. Gow
    • , Keith R. Matthews
    •  & Andrew P. Waters