Perspectives

  • Perspective |

    This Perspective argues that microbiome research needs to consider the different philosophical definitions of function to avoid confusion in the field, and uses the hologenome concept as an example.

    • Jonathan L. Klassen
  • Perspective |

    The colonization resistance paradigm is explored, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of current murine models used to assess the role of the microbiota in enteric infection.

    • Caroline Mullineaux-Sanders
    • , Jotham Suez
    • , Eran Elinav
    •  & Gad Frankel
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective debates the concept of enterotypes and their use to characterize the gut microbiome, and provides a classifier and standardized methodology to aid cross-study comparisons.

    • Paul I. Costea
    • , Falk Hildebrand
    • , Manimozhiyan Arumugam
    • , Fredrik Bäckhed
    • , Martin J. Blaser
    • , Frederic D. Bushman
    • , Willem M. de Vos
    • , S. Dusko Ehrlich
    • , Claire M. Fraser
    • , Masahira Hattori
    • , Curtis Huttenhower
    • , Ian B. Jeffery
    • , Dan Knights
    • , James D. Lewis
    • , Ruth E. Ley
    • , Howard Ochman
    • , Paul W. O’Toole
    • , Christopher Quince
    • , David A. Relman
    • , Fergus Shanahan
    • , Shinichi Sunagawa
    • , Jun Wang
    • , George M. Weinstock
    • , Gary D. Wu
    • , Georg Zeller
    • , Liping Zhao
    • , Jeroen Raes
    • , Rob Knight
    •  & Peer Bork
  • Perspective |

    In this Perspective, Suez and Elinav describe the potential for therapeutic approaches based on the use of metabolites secreted, modulated or degraded by the gut microbiome, and issues that will be critical for their implementation.

    • Jotham Suez
    •  & Eran Elinav
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective describes how lessons learned from traditional probiotics will inform the next generation of probiotics and live biotherapeutic products and the microorganisms suitable for development, and the regulatory framework required to do so.

    • Paul W. O’Toole
    • , Julian R. Marchesi
    •  & Colin Hill
  • Perspective |

    Environmental geomicrobial studies offer insights into the structure and function of the built environment microbiome.

    • Geoffrey Michael Gadd
  • Perspective |

    Amalgamation of population genetic theory and models of horizontal gene transfer suggest that pangenomes in prokaryotes result from adaptive, not neutral, evolution.

    • James O. McInerney
    • , Alan McNally
    •  & Mary J. O'Connell