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  • Article |

    Here, the authors show that Salmonella activates the cytosolic PRR Nod-like Receptor CARD 4 (NLRC4), which limits adaptive T-cell responses in a NLRP3-dependent manner. Modification of Salmonella flagellin reduces NLRC4 activation and enhances protective immunity.

    • Panagiotis Tourlomousis
    • , John A. Wright
    • , Alessandra S. Bittante
    • , Lee J. Hopkins
    • , Steven J. Webster
    • , Owain J. Bryant
    • , Pietro Mastroeni
    • , Duncan J. Maskell
    •  & Clare E. Bryant
  • Article |

    A longitudinal genomic surveillance of Enterococcus faecium carriage, environmental contamination and transmission in a defined patient cohort shows that a hospital-adapted E. faecium lineage was hyperendemic.

    • Theodore Gouliouris
    • , Francesc Coll
    • , Catherine Ludden
    • , Beth Blane
    • , Kathy E. Raven
    • , Plamena Naydenova
    • , Charles Crawley
    • , Mili Estée Török
    • , David A. Enoch
    • , Nicholas M. Brown
    • , Ewan M. Harrison
    • , Julian Parkhill
    •  & Sharon J. Peacock
  • Article |

    Neutralizing antibody responses of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 peak at 3–4 weeks post onset of symptoms, then decline to low levels over the course of 3 months in some individuals.

    • Jeffrey Seow
    • , Carl Graham
    • , Blair Merrick
    • , Sam Acors
    • , Suzanne Pickering
    • , Kathryn J. A. Steel
    • , Oliver Hemmings
    • , Aoife O’Byrne
    • , Neophytos Kouphou
    • , Rui Pedro Galao
    • , Gilberto Betancor
    • , Harry D. Wilson
    • , Adrian W. Signell
    • , Helena Winstone
    • , Claire Kerridge
    • , Isabella Huettner
    • , Jose M. Jimenez-Guardeño
    • , Maria Jose Lista
    • , Nigel Temperton
    • , Luke B. Snell
    • , Karen Bisnauthsing
    • , Amelia Moore
    • , Adrian Green
    • , Lauren Martinez
    • , Brielle Stokes
    • , Johanna Honey
    • , Alba Izquierdo-Barras
    • , Gill Arbane
    • , Amita Patel
    • , Mark Kia Ik Tan
    • , Lorcan O’Connell
    • , Geraldine O’Hara
    • , Eithne MacMahon
    • , Sam Douthwaite
    • , Gaia Nebbia
    • , Rahul Batra
    • , Rocio Martinez-Nunez
    • , Manu Shankar-Hari
    • , Jonathan D. Edgeworth
    • , Stuart J. D. Neil
    • , Michael H. Malim
    •  & Katie J. Doores
  • Article |

    Drug used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection reduces SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in lungs and alleviates virus-associated pneumonia in a golden Syrian hamster model.

    • Shuofeng Yuan
    • , Runming Wang
    • , Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan
    • , Anna Jinxia Zhang
    • , Tianfan Cheng
    • , Kenn Ka-Heng Chik
    • , Zi-Wei Ye
    • , Suyu Wang
    • , Andrew Chak-Yiu Lee
    • , Lijian Jin
    • , Hongyan Li
    • , Dong-Yan Jin
    • , Kwok-Yung Yuen
    •  & Hongzhe Sun
  • Article |

    Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) mediate recruitment of septins to the plasma membrane in fungal appressoria, leading to formation of a septin ring at the point of plant infection. VLCFA biosynthesis-inhibiting chemicals prevent septin assembly and have broad-spectrum fungicidal activity.

    • Min He
    • , Jia Su
    • , Youpin Xu
    • , Jinhua Chen
    • , Mawsheng Chern
    • , Mingliang Lei
    • , Tuo Qi
    • , Zongkuan Wang
    • , Lauren S. Ryder
    • , Bozeng Tang
    • , Míriam Osés-Ruiz
    • , Keke Zhu
    • , Yuyan Cao
    • , Xia Yan
    • , Iris Eisermann
    • , Yuan Luo
    • , Weitao Li
    • , Jing Wang
    • , Junjie Yin
    • , Sin Man Lam
    • , Guoxiong Peng
    • , Xiaofang Sun
    • , Xiaobo Zhu
    • , Bingtian Ma
    • , Jichun Wang
    • , Jiali Liu
    • , Hai Qing
    • , Li Song
    • , Long Wang
    • , Qingqing Hou
    • , Peng Qin
    • , Yan Li
    • , Jing Fan
    • , Deqiang Li
    • , Yuping Wang
    • , Xiue Wang
    • , Ling Jiang
    • , Guanghou Shui
    • , Yuxian Xia
    • , Guoshu Gong
    • , Fu Huang
    • , Wenming Wang
    • , Xianjun Wu
    • , Ping Li
    • , Lihuang Zhu
    • , Shigui Li
    • , Nicholas J. Talbot
    •  & Xuewei Chen
  • Article |

    Using single-particle analysis cryogenic electron microscopy, the authors determine the structures of the bacterial flagellum stator complexes from three diverse bacteria.

    • Justin C. Deme
    • , Steven Johnson
    • , Owen Vickery
    • , Amy Muellbauer
    • , Holly Monkhouse
    • , Thomas Griffiths
    • , Rory Hennell James
    • , Ben C. Berks
    • , James W. Coulton
    • , Phillip J. Stansfeld
    •  & Susan M. Lea
  • Article |

    Cryo-electron microscopy structures of three varicella-zoster virus (VZV) capsids show VZV-specific features of the capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) and genome packaging. The authors conclude that the VZV capsid is less stable and the CATC binds more weakly than in the homologues in other herpesviruses, characteristics that are linked to the small genome size of VZV.

    • Wei Wang
    • , Qingbing Zheng
    • , Dequan Pan
    • , Hai Yu
    • , Wenkun Fu
    • , Jian Liu
    • , Maozhou He
    • , Rui Zhu
    • , Yuze Cai
    • , Yang Huang
    • , Zhenghui Zha
    • , Zhenqin Chen
    • , Xiangzhong Ye
    • , Jinle Han
    • , Yuqiong Que
    • , Ting Wu
    • , Jun Zhang
    • , Shaowei Li
    • , Hua Zhu
    • , Z. Hong Zhou
    • , Tong Cheng
    •  & Ningshao Xia
  • Article |

    Preclinical studies show that fluoxazolevir, which inhibits the fusion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with hepatic cells by binding viral envelope protein 1, could be useful in drug cocktails to treat HCV.

    • Christopher D. Ma
    • , Michio Imamura
    • , Daniel C. Talley
    • , Adam Rolt
    • , Xin Xu
    • , Amy Q. Wang
    • , Derek Le
    • , Takuro Uchida
    • , Mitsutaka Osawa
    • , Yuji Teraoka
    • , Kelin Li
    • , Xin Hu
    • , Seung Bum Park
    • , Nishanth Chalasani
    • , Parker H. Irvin
    • , Andres E. Dulcey
    • , Noel Southall
    • , Juan J. Marugan
    • , Zongyi Hu
    • , Kazuaki Chayama
    • , Kevin J. Frankowski
    •  & Tsanyang Jake Liang
  • Article |

    Transcriptional and functional immune-cell profiling reveals that Candida auris is a strong inducer of innate host defence and identifies possible targets for adjuvant immunotherapy.

    • Mariolina Bruno
    • , Simone Kersten
    • , Judith M. Bain
    • , Martin Jaeger
    • , Diletta Rosati
    • , Michael D. Kruppa
    • , Douglas W. Lowman
    • , Peter J. Rice
    • , Bridget Graves
    • , Zuchao Ma
    • , Yue Ning Jiao
    • , Anuradha Chowdhary
    • , George Renieris
    • , Frank L. van de Veerdonk
    • , Bart-Jan Kullberg
    • , Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis
    • , Alexander Hoischen
    • , Neil A. R. Gow
    • , Alistair J. P. Brown
    • , Jacques F. Meis
    • , David L. Williams
    •  & Mihai G. Netea
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Large freshwater phage genomes can encode the pmoC gene, an important subunit of the methane oxidation enzyme, methane monooxygenase. These genes are similar to bacterial homologues and are actively expressed in situ. Further work is needed to confirm whether these phages contribute to methane oxidation in the environment.

    • Lin-Xing Chen
    • , Raphaël Méheust
    • , Alexander Crits-Christoph
    • , Katherine D. McMahon
    • , Tara Colenbrander Nelson
    • , Gregory F. Slater
    • , Lesley A. Warren
    •  & Jillian F. Banfield
  • Article |

    The authors do a CRISPR-knockout selection to investigate host factors required for influenza replication. They identified IFIT2 as being repurposed by influenza to promote replication.

    • Vy Tran
    • , Mitchell P. Ledwith
    • , Thiprampai Thamamongood
    • , Christina A. Higgins
    • , Shashank Tripathi
    • , Max W. Chang
    • , Christopher Benner
    • , Adolfo García-Sastre
    • , Martin Schwemmle
    • , Adrianus C. M. Boon
    • , Michael S. Diamond
    •  & Andrew Mehle
  • Article |

    Outer membrane vesicles from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other Gram-negative pathogens can kill macrophages via induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BAK, and activate the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    • Pankaj Deo
    • , Seong H. Chow
    • , Mei-Ling Han
    • , Mary Speir
    • , Cheng Huang
    • , Ralf B. Schittenhelm
    • , Subhash Dhital
    • , Jack Emery
    • , Jian Li
    • , Benjamin T. Kile
    • , James E. Vince
    • , Kate E. Lawlor
    •  & Thomas Naderer
  • Article |

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in archaeon ‘Candidatus Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia’ is distinct from bacterial sulfate reduction and sheds light on the evolution of sulfur metabolism.

    • Nikolay A. Chernyh
    • , Sinje Neukirchen
    • , Evgenii N. Frolov
    • , Filipa L. Sousa
    • , Margarita L. Miroshnichenko
    • , Alexander Y. Merkel
    • , Nikolay V. Pimenov
    • , Dimitry Y. Sorokin
    • , Sergio Ciordia
    • , María Carmen Mena
    • , Manuel Ferrer
    • , Peter N. Golyshin
    • , Alexander V. Lebedinsky
    • , Inês A. Cardoso Pereira
    •  & Elizaveta A. Bonch-Osmolovskaya
  • Article |

    This study describes design automation and predictable gene regulatory network engineering in a eukaryotic microorganism.

    • Ye Chen
    • , Shuyi Zhang
    • , Eric M. Young
    • , Timothy S. Jones
    • , Douglas Densmore
    •  & Christopher A. Voigt
  • Article |

    This study describes the mechanism by which Chlamydia trachomatis reprogrammes host glutamine metabolism in a c-Myc-dependent manner. The authors show that glutamine uptake via the SLC15A transporter and glutaminolysis are crucial for peptidoglycan synthesis and Chlamydia replication.

    • Karthika Rajeeve
    • , Nadine Vollmuth
    • , Sudha Janaki-Raman
    • , Thomas F. Wulff
    • , Apoorva Baluapuri
    • , Francesca R. Dejure
    • , Claudia Huber
    • , Julian Fink
    • , Maximilian Schmalhofer
    • , Werner Schmitz
    • , Rajeeve Sivadasan
    • , Elmar Wolf
    • , Wolfgang Eisenreich
    • , Almut Schulze
    • , Jürgen Seibel
    •  & Thomas Rudel
  • Article |

    In this manuscript, the authors address evolutionary questions on the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. They find that SARS-CoV-2 is not a recombinant of any sarbecoviruses detected to date, and that the bat and pangolin sequences most closely related to SARS-CoV-2 probably diverged several decades ago or possibly earlier from human SARS-CoV-2 samples.

    • Maciej F. Boni
    • , Philippe Lemey
    • , Xiaowei Jiang
    • , Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam
    • , Blair W. Perry
    • , Todd A. Castoe
    • , Andrew Rambaut
    •  & David L. Robertson
  • Article |

    This study reveals features of Epstein–Barr virus that are similar but not identical to the closely related Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. The authors provide locations of protein components within the viral capsid and reveal different conformers of protein components by revealing variations in links between capsid proteins and exploiting approaches with relaxation of symmetry. The capsid-associated tegument complex is loaded on to the capsid with long-range asymmetry, relative to the location of the portal vertex (the site of genome entry and egress).

    • Wei Liu
    • , Yanxiang Cui
    • , Caiyan Wang
    • , Zihang Li
    • , Danyang Gong
    • , Xinghong Dai
    • , Guo-Qiang Bi
    • , Ren Sun
    •  & Z. Hong Zhou
  • Article |

    This study reveals that prion-like domains support the assembly of transcription factor complexes that control fungal cell identity and highlights parallels with the ‘super-enhancers’ that regulate mammalian cell fate.

    • Corey Frazer
    • , Mae I. Staples
    • , Yoori Kim
    • , Matthew Hirakawa
    • , Maureen A. Dowell
    • , Nicole V. Johnson
    • , Aaron D. Hernday
    • , Veronica H. Ryan
    • , Nicolas L. Fawzi
    • , Ilya J. Finkelstein
    •  & Richard J. Bennett
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Metagenomic analysis of a single RNA virome from the Yangshan Deep-Water Harbour in China enabled the recovery of more than 4,500 distinct RNA viruses, doubling the known set of RNA viruses to date, and provided insights into their biology.

    • Yuri I. Wolf
    • , Sukrit Silas
    • , Yongjie Wang
    • , Shuang Wu
    • , Michael Bocek
    • , Darius Kazlauskas
    • , Mart Krupovic
    • , Andrew Fire
    • , Valerian V. Dolja
    •  & Eugene V. Koonin
  • Article |

    Vpu prevents HIV superinfection and immune activation by modulating DNA repair mechanisms, particularly by inhibiting homologous repair. Vpu achieves this by disrupting the RanBP2–RanGAP1*SUMO1–Ubc9 complex at the nuclear pore to reduce PML SUMOylation and consequent PML nuclear body formation, which hampers the homologous recombination factors Rad52 and BLM.

    • Meta Volcic
    • , Konstantin M. J. Sparrer
    • , Lennart Koepke
    • , Dominik Hotter
    • , Daniel Sauter
    • , Christina M. Stürzel
    • , Myriam Scherer
    • , Thomas Stamminger
    • , Thomas G. Hofmann
    • , Nathalie J. Arhel
    • , Lisa Wiesmüller
    •  & Frank Kirchhoff
  • Article |

    The AcP10 protein—an active uridine kinase, encoded by the beluga whale coronavirus SW1—is an antagonist of the integrated stress response that acts downstream of phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2, irrespective of which eIF2 kinase is activated. AcP10 acts as a competitive inhibitor of the eIF2[P]–eIF2B interaction by binding to eIF2B. A protein with a similar function is also encoded by Aichivirus, a picornavirus.

    • Huib H. Rabouw
    • , Linda J. Visser
    • , Tim C. Passchier
    • , Martijn A. Langereis
    • , Fan Liu
    • , Piero Giansanti
    • , Arno L. W. van Vliet
    • , José G. Dekker
    • , Susanne G. van der Grein
    • , Jesús G. Saucedo
    • , Aditya A. Anand
    • , Mikael E. Trellet
    • , Alexandre M. J. J. Bonvin
    • , Peter Walter
    • , Albert J. R. Heck
    • , Raoul J. de Groot
    •  & Frank J. M. van Kuppeveld
  • Article |

    The authors propose a nomenclature of SARS-CoV-2 lineages to assist research on epidemiology and decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic. This nomenclature is based on the SARS-CoV-2 phylogeny and designed to provide a real-time bird’s-eye view of the diversity of the hundreds of thousands of genome sequences collected worldwide. The authors develop a set of rules to produce a hierarchical four-level nomenclature of labels that is flexible and dynamic.

    • Andrew Rambaut
    • , Edward C. Holmes
    • , Áine O’Toole
    • , Verity Hill
    • , John T. McCrone
    • , Christopher Ruis
    • , Louis du Plessis
    •  & Oliver G. Pybus
  • Article |

    This study highlights a unique drug target for trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa and a new chemical tool for investigating the function of their divergent kinetochores.

    • Manuel Saldivia
    • , Eric Fang
    • , Xiaolei Ma
    • , Elmarie Myburgh
    • , Juliana B. T. Carnielli
    • , Christopher Bower-Lepts
    • , Elaine Brown
    • , Ryan Ritchie
    • , Suresh B. Lakshminarayana
    • , Yen-Liang Chen
    • , Debjani Patra
    • , Elizabeth Ornelas
    • , Hazel X. Y. Koh
    • , Sarah L. Williams
    • , Frantisek Supek
    • , Daniel Paape
    • , Richard McCulloch
    • , Marcel Kaiser
    • , Michael P. Barrett
    • , Jan Jiricek
    • , Thierry T. Diagana
    • , Jeremy C. Mottram
    •  & Srinivasa P. S. Rao
  • Article |

    In this Article, the authors report the discovery of a small molecule (GHP-88309) that is a new class of allosteric viral polymerase inhibitor that works against two different genera of paramyxoviruses.

    • Robert M. Cox
    • , Julien Sourimant
    • , Mart Toots
    • , Jeong-Joong Yoon
    • , Satoshi Ikegame
    • , Mugunthan Govindarajan
    • , Ruth E. Watkinson
    • , Patricia Thibault
    • , Negar Makhsous
    • , Michelle J. Lin
    • , Jose R. Marengo
    • , Zachary Sticher
    • , Alexander A. Kolykhalov
    • , Michael G. Natchus
    • , Alexander L. Greninger
    • , Benhur Lee
    •  & Richard K. Plemper
  • Article |

    Adenovirus produces two early proteins, E1B55K and E4orf6, that become components of the host cell ubiquitin ligase complex comprising elongin-B and C, cullin-5 and RBX1. The authors identified new protein substrates that are ubiquitinated by the E1B55K–E4orf6 complex and find that hnRNP-C and RALY play an inhibitory role on late viral RNA transcripts and that this is counteracted by ubiquitination due to a reduction on the capacity of these proteins to interact with viral RNA.

    • Christin Herrmann
    • , Joseph M. Dybas
    • , Jennifer C. Liddle
    • , Alexander M. Price
    • , Katharina E. Hayer
    • , Richard Lauman
    • , Caitlin E. Purman
    • , Matthew Charman
    • , Eui Tae Kim
    • , Benjamin A. Garcia
    •  & Matthew D. Weitzman
  • Article |

    Bacteria-derived lactate mediates inhibition of HDAC11 during Staphylococcus aureus biofilm infections, resulting in epigenetic changes that reprogramme the host immune response.

    • Cortney E. Heim
    • , Megan E. Bosch
    • , Kelsey J. Yamada
    • , Amy L. Aldrich
    • , Sujata S. Chaudhari
    • , David Klinkebiel
    • , Casey M. Gries
    • , Abdulelah A. Alqarzaee
    • , Yixuan Li
    • , Vinai C. Thomas
    • , Edward Seto
    • , Adam R. Karpf
    •  & Tammy Kielian
  • Article |

    Productive influenza infection can be improved by cooperation and this varies between viral strains and hosts. By quantifying the rates of reassortment and virus production using several methods, including single-cell sequencing, the authors find that isolates of the avian H9N2 influenza subtype are dependent on infections with a second virus, but only in mammalian cells and not in avian cells. These findings are supported by in vivo experiments in guinea pigs and quail. The authors find indications that this type of cooperation between influenza A viruses depends on the RNA polymerase subunit PA.

    • Kara L. Phipps
    • , Ketaki Ganti
    • , Nathan T. Jacobs
    • , Chung-Young Lee
    • , Silvia Carnaccini
    • , Maria C. White
    • , Miglena Manandhar
    • , Brett E. Pickett
    • , Gene S. Tan
    • , Lucas M. Ferreri
    • , Daniel R. Perez
    •  & Anice C. Lowen
  • Article |

    Isolation of phages associated with the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveals a link between cell surface structures, including phase-variable capsular polysaccharides, lipoproteins and S-layer proteins, and susceptibility to phage infection.

    • Nathan T. Porter
    • , Andrew J. Hryckowian
    • , Bryan D. Merrill
    • , Jaime J. Fuentes
    • , Jackson O. Gardner
    • , Robert W. P. Glowacki
    • , Shaleni Singh
    • , Ryan D. Crawford
    • , Evan S. Snitkin
    • , Justin L. Sonnenburg
    •  & Eric C. Martens
  • Article |

    This study describes the mechanisms of FOXO1-mediated repression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in HIV-1 latency. The authors propose a model where inhibition of FOXO1 activity promotes protein accumulation in the ER leading to ER stress signalling and calcium release, which mobilizes ATF4 and NFAT and activates HIV-1 transcription.

    • Albert Vallejo-Gracia
    • , Irene P. Chen
    • , Rosalba Perrone
    • , Emilie Besnard
    • , Daniela Boehm
    • , Emilie Battivelli
    • , Tugsan Tezil
    • , Karsten Krey
    • , Kyle A. Raymond
    • , Philip A. Hull
    • , Marius Walter
    • , Ireneusz Habrylo
    • , Andrew Cruz
    • , Steven Deeks
    • , Satish Pillai
    • , Eric Verdin
    •  & Melanie Ott
  • Article |

    Using the proteome-wide pSILAC-AHA labelling approach, the authors resolve the host proteome spatiotemporal dynamics during macrophage infection with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and reveal the active role of cathepsins in cell death via the non-canonical inflammasome.

    • Joel Selkrig
    • , Nan Li
    • , Annika Hausmann
    • , Matthew S. J. Mangan
    • , Matylda Zietek
    • , André Mateus
    • , Jacob Bobonis
    • , Anna Sueki
    • , Haruna Imamura
    • , Bachir El Debs
    • , Gianluca Sigismondo
    • , Bogdan I. Florea
    • , Herman S. Overkleeft
    • , Nataša Kopitar-Jerala
    • , Boris Turk
    • , Pedro Beltrao
    • , Mikhail M. Savitski
    • , Eicke Latz
    • , Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
    • , Jeroen Krijgsveld
    •  & Athanasios Typas
  • Article |

    In this Article, using a nutrient-limited, media-based compound screening, the authors discover that the old antibiotic rifabutin is highly active against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    • Brian Luna
    • , Vincent Trebosc
    • , Bosul Lee
    • , Malina Bakowski
    • , Amber Ulhaq
    • , Jun Yan
    • , Peggy Lu
    • , Jiaqi Cheng
    • , Travis Nielsen
    • , Juhyeon Lim
    • , Warisa Ketphan
    • , Hyungjin Eoh
    • , Case McNamara
    • , Nicholas Skandalis
    • , Rosemary She
    • , Christian Kemmer
    • , Sergio Lociuro
    • , Glenn E. Dale
    •  & Brad Spellberg
  • Article |

    Lentimonas’—a marine microorganism from the Verrucomicrobia phylum—has >200 different glycoside hydrolase and sulfatase enzymes enabling digestion of the algal polysaccharide fucoidan, which was thought to be a recalcitrant source of carbon in our oceans.

    • Andreas Sichert
    • , Christopher H. Corzett
    • , Matthew S. Schechter
    • , Frank Unfried
    • , Stephanie Markert
    • , Dörte Becher
    • , Antonio Fernandez-Guerra
    • , Manuel Liebeke
    • , Thomas Schweder
    • , Martin F. Polz
    •  & Jan-Hendrik Hehemann
  • Article |

    A CRISPR–Cas9 screening identifies cellular genes that regulate Epstein–Barr virus latency type I–III transition. The authors identify UHRF1 and DNMT1 as major regulators of this pathway. They also show that components of the polycomb repressor complex contribute to this regulation.

    • Rui Guo
    • , Yuchen Zhang
    • , Mingxiang Teng
    • , Chang Jiang
    • , Molly Schineller
    • , Bo Zhao
    • , John G. Doench
    • , Richard J. O’Reilly
    • , Ethel Cesarman
    • , Lisa Giulino-Roth
    •  & Benjamin E. Gewurz
  • Article |

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral anaerobe involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, relies on extracellular proteases to degrade proteins into peptides for growth, but how these peptides enter the cell is unknown. Here, the authors identify RagAB as the outer-membrane importer for these peptides and solve its structure, elucidating that it works via a ‘pedal bin’ mechanism of nutrient uptake.

    • Mariusz Madej
    • , Joshua B. R. White
    • , Zuzanna Nowakowska
    • , Shaun Rawson
    • , Carsten Scavenius
    • , Jan J. Enghild
    • , Grzegorz P. Bereta
    • , Karunakar Pothula
    • , Ulrich Kleinekathoefer
    • , Arnaud Baslé
    • , Neil A. Ranson
    • , Jan Potempa
    •  & Bert van den Berg
  • Article |

    Monkeypox is caused by an emerging zoonotic virus. This study describes a detailed investigation into monkeypox outbreaks in chimpanzees through non-invasive environmental sampling, virus genomics, pathology, behavioural ecology and dietary metabarcoding.

    • Livia V. Patrono
    • , Kamilla Pléh
    • , Liran Samuni
    • , Markus Ulrich
    • , Caroline Röthemeier
    • , Andreas Sachse
    • , Silvia Muschter
    • , Andreas Nitsche
    • , Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann
    • , Christophe Boesch
    • , Roman M. Wittig
    • , Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer
    •  & Fabian H. Leendertz
  • Article |

    The authors present the full-length structure of the polymerase (L protein) from the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV)—a segmented, negative-stranded RNA virus. The structure reveals important details with implications for the understanding of viral transcription and replication, and provides information on the organization of the polymerase core domain, entrance and exit tunnels, as well as the cap-binding and endonuclease domains.

    • Panpan Wang
    • , Lu Liu
    • , Aijun Liu
    • , Liming Yan
    • , Yong He
    • , Shu Shen
    • , Mingxu Hu
    • , Yu Guo
    • , Haiguang Liu
    • , Chuang Liu
    • , Yinying Lu
    • , Peiyi Wang
    • , Fei Deng
    • , Zihe Rao
    •  & Zhiyong Lou
  • Article |

    A comparison of the evolutionary history and geographical spread of the antimicrobial-resistant pathogen Staphylococcus capitis in neonatal intensive care units indicates that acquisition of antibiotic resistance and increased competitiveness have led to the success of the NRCS-A S. capitis clone.

    • Thierry Wirth
    • , Marine Bergot
    • , Jean-Philippe Rasigade
    • , Bruno Pichon
    • , Maxime Barbier
    • , Patricia Martins-Simoes
    • , Laurent Jacob
    • , Rachel Pike
    • , Pierre Tissieres
    • , Jean-Charles Picaud
    • , Angela Kearns
    • , Philip Supply
    • , Marine Butin
    • , Frédéric Laurent
    • , Vaclava Adamkova
    • , Timothy Barkham
    • , Karsten Becker
    • , Desiree Bennett
    • , Olivier Claris
    • , Clarence Buddy Creech
    • , Herminia De Lencastre
    • , Margaret Deighton
    • , Olivier Denis
    • , John Ferguson
    • , Yhu-Chering Huang
    • , Claus Klingenberg
    • , Andre Ingebretsen
    • , Celine Laferrière
    • , Katia Regina Netto dos Santos
    • , Jacques Schrenzel
    • , Iris Spiliopoulou
    • , Stefania Stefani
    • , Kim TaekSoo
    • , Eveliina Tarkka
    • , Alex Friedrich
    • , Christina Vandenbroucke-Grauls
    • , James Ussher
    • , Francois Vandenesch
    • , Lars Westblade
    • , Jodi Lindsay
    • , Francois Vandenesch
    • , Anders Rhod Larsen
    • , Philipp Zanger
    • , Barbara C. Kahl
    •  & Cristina Prat Aymerich
  • Article |

    The oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol reduces the levels of plasma membrane accessible cholesterol via acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to inhibit infection and dissemination of intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes.

    • Michael E. Abrams
    • , Kristen A. Johnson
    • , Sofya S. Perelman
    • , Li-shu Zhang
    • , Shreya Endapally
    • , Katrina B. Mar
    • , Bonne M. Thompson
    • , Jeffrey G. McDonald
    • , John W. Schoggins
    • , Arun Radhakrishnan
    •  & Neal M. Alto
  • Article |

    Using a multi-omics approach to analyse meconium and stool samples from babies during the first few days of life, the authors show that the gut is detectably colonized within 16 h of birth, with Escherichia coli dominating, and that this correlates with proteome and metabolome changes including the fermentation of amino acids.

    • Kyle Bittinger
    • , Chunyu Zhao
    • , Yun Li
    • , Eileen Ford
    • , Elliot S. Friedman
    • , Josephine Ni
    • , Chiraag V. Kulkarni
    • , Jingwei Cai
    • , Yuan Tian
    • , Qing Liu
    • , Andrew D. Patterson
    • , Debolina Sarkar
    • , Siu. H. J. Chan
    • , Costas Maranas
    • , Anumita Saha-Shah
    • , Peder Lund
    • , Benjamin A. Garcia
    • , Lisa M. Mattei
    • , Jeffrey S. Gerber
    • , Michal A. Elovitz
    • , Andrea Kelly
    • , Patricia DeRusso
    • , Dorothy Kim
    • , Casey E. Hofstaedter
    • , Mark Goulian
    • , Hongzhe Li
    • , Frederic D. Bushman
    • , Babette S. Zemel
    •  & Gary D. Wu
  • Article |

    Using macroecological approaches and human and murine gut microbiota datasets, the authors demonstrate that the dynamics of these complex microbial communities can be characterized similarly to other ecological systems by multiple quantitative relationships. The observed macroecological relationships were then used to identify specific taxa that are impacted by environmental changes.

    • Brian W. Ji
    • , Ravi U. Sheth
    • , Purushottam D. Dixit
    • , Konstantine Tchourine
    •  & Dennis Vitkup
  • Article |

    SspABCD–SspE is a widespread bacterial defence system against phage infection, in which SspABCD is responsible for introducing phosphorothioate modifications and SspE serves as a nickase that cleaves foreign DNA.

    • Xiaolin Xiong
    • , Geng Wu
    • , Yue Wei
    • , Liqiong Liu
    • , Yubing Zhang
    • , Rui Su
    • , Xianyue Jiang
    • , Mengxue Li
    • , Haiyan Gao
    • , Xihao Tian
    • , Yizhou Zhang
    • , Li Hu
    • , Si Chen
    • , You Tang
    • , Susu Jiang
    • , Ruolin Huang
    • , Zhiqiang Li
    • , Yunfu Wang
    • , Zixin Deng
    • , Jiawei Wang
    • , Peter C. Dedon
    • , Shi Chen
    •  & Lianrong Wang
  • Article |

    A search for genes encoding anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins on plasmids and other conjugative elements identifies new Acrs that regulate plasmid dissemination and are broad-spectrum inhibitors of Cas9 in human cells.

    • Caroline Mahendra
    • , Kathleen A. Christie
    • , Beatriz A. Osuna
    • , Rafael Pinilla-Redondo
    • , Benjamin P. Kleinstiver
    •  & Joseph Bondy-Denomy
  • Article |

    Using single-cell imaging of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, the authors show that confinement or mechanical perturbations result in altered photosynthetic activity.

    • Kristin A. Moore
    • , Sabina Altus
    • , Jian W. Tay
    • , Janet B. Meehl
    • , Evan B. Johnson
    • , David M. Bortz
    •  & Jeffrey C. Cameron
  • Article |

    In this Article, the authors identify the mechanism of influenza virus transcription in viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). This processive helical track mechanism is enabled by the extreme flexibility of the helical part of the vRNP, which allows the polymerase to move over the genome while bound to both RNA ends.

    • Rocío Coloma
    • , Rocío Arranz
    • , José M. de la Rosa-Trevín
    • , Carlos O. S. Sorzano
    • , Sandie Munier
    • , Diego Carlero
    • , Nadia Naffakh
    • , Juan Ortín
    •  & Jaime Martín-Benito