An endothelial apelin-FGF link mediated by miR-424 and miR-503 is disrupted in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Vascular homeostasis in the lung is disturbed in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Jongmin Kim et al. delineate a new signaling axis controlling endothelial cell proliferation and cytokine production that is dysregulated in pulmonary endothelial cells from individuals with this disease. In this axis, the peptide apelin controls expression of the cytokine FGF2, a mitogen for endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, through effects on two microRNAs. The authors also demonstrated the functional importance of these miRNAs in rat models of pulmonary hypertension.