Articles in 2010

Filter By:

  • Jian-Xun Wang et al. show that mitochondrial fission, which occurs during cell death, is regulated in cardiomyocytes by the microRNA miR-499 through a mechanism involving the phosphatase calcineurin and its substrate Drp1. Overexpression of miR-499 was able to reduce mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in the hearts of mice or rats injured by ischemia-reperfusion and to improve heart function, suggesting new therapeutic approaches for myocardial injury.

    • Jian-Xun Wang
    • Jian-Qin Jiao
    • Pei-Feng Li
  • The protein hormone adiponectin is known to have many beneficial systemic effects, including promoting cell survival, anti-inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Phil Scherer and his colleagues have found that these pleiotropic effects are mediated by a ceramidase activity associated with the two known isoforms of the adiponectin receptor.

    • William L Holland
    • Russell A Miller
    • Philipp E Scherer
  • A major problem in the clinical management of patients with brain tumors is distinguishing tumor recurrence from radiation-induced necrosis after brain tumor therapy. Zhou et al. use an MRI technique called amide proton transfer imaging to noninvasively differentiate between these two pathologies. The approach is successfully evaluated by comparing two orthotopic glioma models with a radiation necrosis model in rats.

    • Jinyuan Zhou
    • Erik Tryggestad
    • Peter C M van Zijl
    Technical Report
  • Yujin Zhang et al. discovered that the concentration of adenosine in the blood is increased both in a mouse model of sickle cell disease and in humans with this disease. Adenosine seems to have a pathological role in this disease, as it induced sickling of human erythrocytes through a mechanism involving activation of the A2B adenosine receptor. Treatment of the mouse model of sickle cell disease with an agent to lower adenosine levels or with an A2B adenosine receptor antagonist had beneficial effects, pointing to new therapeutic strategies for this disease.

    • Yujin Zhang
    • Yingbo Dai
    • Yang Xia
  • Histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) is required for the endogenous production of histamine, but its role in tumorigenesis is unclear. Yang et al. now report that Hdc-deficient mice develop more tumors in models of chemically induced carcinogenesis, associated with an increased recruitment of immature myeloid cells to the tumors and higher amounts of interleukin-6. The authors further show that Hdc deficiency inhibits myeloid cell maturation and that exogenous histamine promotes monocyte differentiation and suppresses tumor growth.

    • Xiang Dong Yang
    • Walden Ai
    • Timothy C Wang
  • The antithrombotic drug clopidogrel, widely prescribed after heart attacks, is a prodrug and must be metabolically activated. The efficiency of this activation step varies among individuals and is thought to account for clopidogrel's variable clinical efficacy, a major drawback to its use. Heleen Bouman et al. provide biochemical, clinical and epidemiological evidence to show that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding paraoxonase-1 is largely responsible for this variability. Paraoxonase-1 genotyping might identify those individuals unlikely to benefit from clopidogrel treatment.

    • Heleen J Bouman
    • Edgar Schömig
    • Dirk Taubert
  • Adenovirus type 37 (Ad37) causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, a highly contagious disease for which there is no specific antiviral therapy. The receptor for Ad37 infection was previously unidentified, but known to contain sialic acid. Nilsson et al. report here that Ad37 binds to the GD1a glycan motif of the GD1a ganglioside. This finding may facilitate the development of antiviral agents targeting Ad37-associated disease.

    • Emma C Nilsson
    • Rickard J Storm
    • Niklas Arnberg
  • A subset of series B adenoviruses binds epithelial cells via a previously unknown receptor. Wang et al. now identify this receptor as desmoglein-2 (DSG-2), which has a role in intercellular adhesion. Binding of group B Ad3 to DSG-2 triggered an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, opened intercellular junctions and increased access to junction-localized proteins, which together may contribute to the spread of these viruses though epithelial tissues.

    • Hongjie Wang
    • Zong-Yi Li
    • André Lieber
  • Proteinuria results from defects in glomerular filtration, often as a result of kidney injury or inflammation. Sumant Chugh and his colleagues now show that the glycoprotein Angptl4 is highly upregulated in minimal change disease, a type of human proteinuria, and that genetic deletion protects against experimentally induced proteinuria in mice.

    • Lionel C Clement
    • Carmen Avila-Casado
    • Sumant S Chugh
  • Bhang and colleagues have developed a tumor-specific imaging strategy that uses the progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3) promoter, known to be specifically associated with malignant transformation, to selectively drive the expression of luciferase or herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase reporters. Systemic delivery of PEG-3 promoter–driven constructs using a nonviral gene delivery vehicle allowed detection of both primary tumors and micrometastatic disease in mouse models of human melanoma and breast cancer.

    • Hyo-eun C Bhang
    • Kathleen L Gabrielson
    • Martin G Pomper
    Technical Report
  • We list key people who made headlines this year, either by standing up for what they saw as right or by stopping what they felt was wrong.