News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Machine learning can use patients’ demographic information and previous clinical history to help physicians select the antibiotics most likely to successfully treat urinary tract infections, despite growing levels of resistance.

    • Xavier Didelot
    •  & Koen B. Pouwels
  • News & Views |

    Quorum-sensing bacteria can deliver a nanobody targeting the ‘don’t eat me’ ligand CD47 to tumors that results in systemic anti-tumor immunity-induced regression in mice.

    • Michael Dougan
    •  & Stephanie K. Dougan
  • News & Views |

    The prevalence of excess weight gain is increasing more rapidly in rural than in urban environments. Increased intake of ultra-processed foods has been associated with obesity, and the rise of supermarkets and marketing strategies may have contributed to the greater weight increases in rural areas.

    • William H. Dietz
  • News & Views |

    Heat-inactivated Akkermansia muciniphila helps alleviate features of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese subjects.

    • Fernando F. Anhê
    • , Jonathan D. Schertzer
    •  & André Marette
  • News & Views |

    Assessment of more than 400,000 people over the age of 40 demonstrates that homozygosity for a CCR5 variant that prevents HIV-1 infection comes at the cost of increased rates of mortality.

    • Jeremy Luban
  • News & Views |

    Multi-omics longitudinal profiling of individuals can detect subtle changes in health status at the earliest possible time point, allowing preemptive initiation of mechanism-appropriate disease-prevention strategies.

    • Steven R. Steinhubl
  • News & Views |

    Human survivors of Ebola virus disease are more likely than uninfected controls to develop memory loss, uveitis, and other abnormal conditions, and Ebola virus remains in semen much longer than previously thought.

    • Daniel S. Chertow
  • News & Views |

    Three innovative precision medicine studies show the utility of evidence beyond that from tumor DNA sequencing to guide therapy in patients with cancer.

    • Christophe Le Tourneau
    • , Edith Borcoman
    •  & Maud Kamal
  • News & Views |

    Improved protocols for the visualization of immature neurons in the human brain provide evidence for generation of neurons in the adult hippocampus and uncover reduced neurogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease.

    • Embla Steiner
    • , Mathew Tata
    •  & Jonas Frisén
  • News & Views |

    A large study provides causal evidence of the opposing effects of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in a Chinese population and suggests there is a a net benefit associated with LDL lowering.

    • Neal S. Parikh
    •  & Mitchell S. V. Elkind
  • News & Views |

    Application of immunoprofiling of human peripheral blood samples from an aging cohort identifies changes in the immune system that inform our understanding of age-associated complex diseases.

    • Soumya Raychaudhuri
    •  & Rajat M. Gupta
  • News & Views |

    Transcriptional signatures and immune cell infiltrates associated with immune activation distinguish patients with glioblastoma who initially respond to immune checkpoint blockade from those who do not.

    • Hirotaka Ito
    • , Hiroshi Nakashima
    •  & E. Antonio Chiocca
  • News & Views |

    The analysis of autopsy material from individuals with multiple sclerosis with single-cell transcriptomics and 14C carbon dating calls for a reevaluation of mature oligodendrocytes in myelin repair.

    • Klaus-Armin Nave
    •  & Hannelore Ehrenreich
  • News & Views |

    Non-invasive prenatal diagnostics allow for the successful identification of paternally inherited and de novo mongenic diseases using circulating cell-free DNA.

    • Nancy B. Spinner
    •  & Ian D. Krantz
  • News & Views |

    Two new biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease include one in the blood that relates to neurodegeneration and another that reflects blood–brain barrier dysfunction and is identifiable in cerebrospinal fluid analysis.

    • Henrik Zetterberg
    •  & Jonathan M. Schott
  • News & Views |

    Antitumor immunity can be enhanced by blocking NKG2A, an inhibitory receptor expressed on natural killer and T cells.

    • Matthew D. Hellmann
    •  & Alexandra Snyder
  • News & Views |

    Counteracting splice defects in the CEP290 gene using RNA antisense oligonucleotides or Cas9-mediated gene editing is a therapeutic strategy for Leber congenital amaurosis type 10—a severe untreatable retinal dystrophy leading to childhood blindness.

    • José Alain Sahel
    •  & Deniz Dalkara
  • News & Views |

    Vaccination with the tuberculosis (TB) vaccine Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) into the lungs of Rhesus macaques induces specific, local immune responses that delay infection in some animals and completely prevent it in others while protecting against TB disease.

    • Thomas J. Scriba
    •  & Elisa Nemes
  • News & Views |

    Deep-learning algorithms can be applied to large datasets of electrocardiograms, are capable of identifying abnormal heart rhythms and mechanical dysfunction, and could aid healthcare decisions.

    • Ana Mincholé
    •  & Blanca Rodriguez
  • News & Views |

    Metformin functions through a gut microbiome–bile acid–farnesoid X receptor axis to lower glucose in type 2 diabetes, revealing a new therapeutic target in this disease.

    • Grace L. Guo
    •  & Wen Xie
  • News & Views |

    Analysis of the UK Biobank genetic and phenotypic data demonstrate the power of including a large population and detailed phenotyping in a prospective study to identify genetic and lifestyle factors related to health and disease.

    • Teri A. Manolio
  • News & Views |

    Protein-specific and shared genetic pathways influence the spread of amyloid-β and tau pathology. Hence, distinct gene expression profiles may induce regional vulnerability of the human cortex to the specific proteinopathies of Alzheimer’s disease.

    • Rik Ossenkoppele
    •  & Oskar Hansson
  • News & Views |

    Stratifying tuberculosis (TB) disease into minimal, moderate or severe disease may allow treatment duration to be tailored to disease severity. Minimal poor adherence is associated with poor treatment outcomes.

    • Gavin J. Churchyard
  • News & Views |

    In humans, niche-specific gastrointestinal microbiomes influence the colonization success of probiotic microbes. Microbiome reconstitution following antimicrobial perturbation is most successful using preperturbation autofecal microbial transplant.

    • Elze Rackaityte
    •  & Susan V. Lynch
  • News & Views |

    Reinforcement learning is applied to two large databases of electronic health records for patients admitted to an intensive care unit to identify individualized treatment strategies for correcting hypotension in sepsis.

    • Suchi Saria
  • News & Views |

    Mutationally activated BRAF-V600E influences the behavior of different types of cells in the brain and leads to promotion of seizures as well as brain tumors, indicating how both can be pharmacologically targeted in the clinic.

    • Jean M. Mulcahy Levy
    •  & Martin McMahon
  • News & Views |

    Informing physicians who prescribe opioids about opioid-linked deaths in their practice reduces future opioid prescribing.

    • Nora D. Volkow
    •  & Ruben Baler
  • News & Views |

    Acquired resistance to CD19-targeted CAR T cell therapy can occur through mutations in the CD19 gene or after insertion of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) into leukemia cells, resulting in the adjacent receptor being masked by the CAR.

    • Sarwish Rafiq
    •  & Renier J. Brentjens
  • News & Views |

    Base editors function in mouse fetuses and in the livers of adult mice to treat a genetic disorder.

    • Huiyun Seo
    •  & Jin-Soo Kim
  • News & Views |

    Preconception cold–induced alterations of sperm DNA methylation result in offspring with altered brown adipose tissue and improved adaptation to overnutrition and hypothermia.

    • Michael K. Skinner
  • News & Views |

    An in vivo cellular reprogramming strategy to generate epithelial cells from wound mesenchymal cells promotes healing and provides a new avenue for the treatment of nonhealing wounds.

    • Shruti Naik
  • News & Views |

    Impaired de novo NAD+ biosynthesis predisposes to acute kidney injury, and augmenting NAD+ metabolism with oral nicotinamide supplementation may prevent acute kidney injury.

    • Heerajnarain Bulluck
    •  & Derek J. Hausenloy
  • News & Views |

    Machine learning can be used for computer-aided diagnosis of acute neurological events and retinal disease and can be incorporated into conventional clinical workflows to improve health outcomes.

    • Charles J. Lynch
    •  & Conor Liston
  • News & Views |

    The human heart contains two macrophage populations with distinct self-maintenance and inflammatory functions. A shift in the balance between these macrophage populations correlates with left-ventricle remodeling and systolic function in patients with heart failure.

    • Freya R. Svedberg
    •  & Martin Guilliams
  • News & Views |

    Targeting senescent cells with repurposed FDA-approved drugs improves phenotypes of aging in mice.

    • Manuel Serrano
    •  & Nir Barzilai
  • News & Views |

    Intratumoral infusion of a nonpathogenic replication-competent recombinant polio-rhinovirus chimera (PVSRIPO) for recurrent glioblastoma demonstrates safety and promising preliminary treatment responses.

    • J. Bryan Iorgulescu
    • , David A. Reardon
    • , E. Antonio Chiocca
    •  & Catherine J. Wu
  • News & Views |

    Signaling by the tumor-suppressor protein p53 antagonizes CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing of human pluripotent stem cells and immortalized human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    • Fyodor D. Urnov
  • News & Views |

    An integrative multiomics approach in nondiabetic obese women identifies phenylacetate as a microbial metabolite contributing to the accumulation of lipids in the liver and hence to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    • Nathalie M. Delzenne
    •  & Laure B. Bindels
  • News & Views |

    The number, identity, and burden of mutations in clonal hematopoiesis are associated with the risk and timing of progression to acute myeloid leukemia.

    • Rob S. Sellar
    • , Siddhartha Jaiswal
    •  & Benjamin L. Ebert
  • News & Views |

    Studies in KRAS-mutant lung and pancreatic adenocarcinoma and in KRAS-amplified gastric carcinoma reveal that SHP2 inhibition augments the antitumor effect of MEK inhibitor treatment.

    • Trang T. Mai
    •  & Piro Lito
  • News & Views |

    A glucagon-like peptide receptor 1 (GLP-1R) agonist inhibits the conversion of astrocytes into a neurotoxic phenotype and protects against neurodegeneration, shedding light on the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease.

    • Lena Brundin
    • , Liza Bergkvist
    •  & Patrik Brundin
  • News & Views |

    A large retrospective study involving 62,565 Danish men shows that those who have been overweight in childhood have a lower risk of having type 2 diabetes in adulthood if they had remission of overweight before 13 years of age.

    • Daniel S. Hsia
    •  & Steven B. Heymsfield