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Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analyses in humans reveal that loss of blood–brain barrier integrity and brain capillary pericyte damage are early biomarkers of cognitive impairment that occur independently of changes in amyloid-β and tau.
A deep learning algorithm applied to the electrocardiogram—a test of the heart’s electrical activity—can detect abnormally low contractile function of the heart, opening up the possibility for a simple screening tool for this condition.
Nongenetic activation of Aurora kinase A in the majority of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer mediates adaptive resistance to EGFR inhibition and offers an opportunity for combination treatment.
Initial results from a first-in-human study show that PET imaging with PD-L1 antibodies outperforms immunohistochemistry- or RNA-sequencing-based biomarkers for prediction of clinical response to immunotherapy.
A biocompatible device built from naturally dissolving components and controlled by wireless technology enables programmable electrical stimulation of injured rodent peripheral nerves to accelerate regeneration and recovery.
Neoadjuvant combination treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab in patients with high-risk melanoma results in higher response rates than nivolumab monotherapy and warrants future optimization of dosing regimens to preserve efficacy while limiting toxicity.
Large tumors induce anemia and expansion of CD45+ immature erythroid cells, which represent a major immunosuppressive population in the spleen, contributing to systemic suppression of T cell immunity in late-stage cancer.
Neoadjuvant combination immunotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma shows favorable activity over adjuvant treatment and warrants future evaluation with modified dosing schedules to reduce treatment-related adverse events.
In vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in humans treated with lentiviral gene therapy unveils the resilience of hematopoietic stem cells and the long-term survival of lymphoid-biased precursors.
Intracortical activity data recorded over 2 years in a tetraplegic patient is used to develop an artificial intelligence algorithm that achieves fast, accurate, and stable movement decoding to reenable real-time control of the paralyzed forearm.
In a human subject with chronic paraplegia, a combination of epidural electrical stimulation and long-term rehabilitative training have culminated in the first report of unassisted, voluntary independent stepping in a paralyzed individual.
In pediatric brain tumors that are accompanied by epileptic seizures, the BRAF somatic mutation V600E contributes to intrinsic epileptic properties in neurons, which can be suppressed by vemurafenib in mice.
A gene signature identified in spontaneously regressing neuroblastoma identifies responders to immune checkpoint blockade among patients with melanoma with accuracy superior to previously reported biomarkers.
A deep-learning algorithm is developed to provide rapid and accurate diagnosis of clinical 3D head CT-scan images to triage and prioritize urgent neurological events, thus potentially accelerating time to diagnosis and care in clinical settings.
Retroelements located in antisense orientation within interferon-regulated genes are reactivated in a subset of cancer cells and initiate a STING- and MAVS-dependent feed-forward inflammatory loop, driving antitumor immunity and exhaustion.
In utero GBA gene therapy extends lifespan and provides long-lasting phenotypic amelioration in a mouse model of neuronopathic Gaucher disease. Fetal ultrasound-guided in utero gene vector delivery is also achieved in the non-human primate brain.
A glutamate-gated chloride channel delivered via gene therapy is shown to detect elevated brain glutamate levels and trigger the suppression of neuronal excitability, thereby attenuating seizure activity in two rodent models of epilepsy.
Agonism of microglial glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) using a brain-penetrant peptide prevents the generation of neurotoxic astrocytes and ameliorates disease progression in two rodent models of Parkinson’s disease.