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A new epidemiological study shows reduced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and decreased risk of developing severe symptoms in people aged younger than 20 years, suggesting that children have limited contribution to spread of COVID-19.
Projection of the number of COVID-19 cases and the associated burden on healthcare resources using a modified SEIR model reveals that rural regions in the United States are at risk of higher per capita case burdens, which could lead to health systems being overwhelmed in these areas.
Single-cell transcriptomic analysis identifies changes in peripheral immune cells in seven hospitalized patients with COVID-19, including HLA class II downregulation, a heterogeneous interferon-stimulated gene signature and low pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in monocytes and lymphocytes.
An IgG-cleaving endopeptidase can degrade circulating anti-adeno-associated virus antibodies in mice and nonhuman primates in vivo, as well as in human plasma in vitro, offering a potential solution for a major hurdle in gene therapy.
Analysis of large genomic datasets, including gnomAD, reveals that partial LRRK2 loss of function is not strongly associated with diseases, serving as an example of how human genetics can be leveraged for target validation in drug discovery.
Multiregion spatial histology, exome and transcriptome data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer suggest that cancer subclones from immune cold regions diversify later than subclones from immune hot regions
Results from the phase IIa COMBAT trial combining CXCR4 and PD-1 inhibition in patients with metastatic cancer show encouraging clinical responses in association with enhanced antitumor immune activation.
Bat and human intestinal organoids can support replication of SARS-CoV-2, enabling further characterization of the virus lifecycle and investigation of potential mechanisms of enteric infection in COVID-19.
In a retrospective analysis of data from three clinical trials, increased baseline peripheral and tumor IL-8 levels were associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with anti-PD-L1 therapy.
By using data from electrocardiograms, a deep learning algorithm outperforms traditional risk scores in predicting death over the course of the next year and identifies at-risk individuals with seemingly normal electrocardiograms.
A new study models the potential effects of preferentially deploying recovered individuals, who are seropositive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, into the community to reduce the number of interactions between susceptible and infected people, thereby limiting transmission of the virus.
CAR T cells administered intracerebroventricularly or intratumorally exhibit more rapid kinetics, reduced systemic toxicity and greater therapeutic potency as compared to intravenously delivered CAR T cells in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor xenograft mouse models.
A new epidemiological model, termed SIDARTHE, distinguishes between diagnosed and undiagnosed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as modeling effects of social distancing and widespread testing, to predict possible outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy.
In a large and prospective cohort, higher polygenic risk is associated with higher risk and earlier age of onset for cardiometabolic disorders and cancer, and has added value to clinical risk scores in clinical disease prediction.
A new cross-validated neuroimaging biomarker that reflects striatal dysfunctioning can be used to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, and is associated with treatment response to antipsychotics.
Single-cell RNA-sequencing of blood from HIV-1-infected individuals obtained before initiation of antiretroviral therapy provides insights into the initial immune responses during early infection that might shape future outcomes.
Cross-biobank analysis reveals that polygenic risk scores (PRS) for hypertension and obesity are associated with shorter lifespan, serving as a proof-of-principle that PRS could pinpoint causal risk factors that affect long-term health outcomes.
Immune checkpoint blockade has been proposed as a potentially curative strategy to reduce the HIV reservoir. Studies in monkeys now show that this approach alone is ineffective at enabling viral control after antiretroviral treatment interruption.
A single therapeutic base edit of the BCL11A enhancer in human HSPCs can ameliorate cellular defects associated with sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia in vitro and efficiently induce fetal hemoglobin expression upon engraftment in mice in vivo.
The relative concentrations of four metabolites in maternal blood at 36 weeks of gestation predict fetal growth restriction in infants subsequently born at term, enabling enhanced fetal monitoring in pregnancies at risk.
The development of an algorithm that can imperceptibly manipulate electrocardiographic data to fool a deep learning model for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmia highlights the potential vulnerability of artificial intelligence-enabled diagnosis to adversarial attacks.
Star-shaped, approximately 1-mm-wide ceramic particles, termed STAR particles, create micropores in the skin and, when added to topical formulations, enhance drug and vaccine delivery through the skin in mice.
Early results from a first-in-human retinal gene therapy trial for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa indicate that, at an intermediate dose, AAV8-RPGR is safe and in a subset of patients can lead to gains in visual function.
Distinct patterns of exposure to a first-line tuberculosis drug in separate lung lesions within patients are revealed by PET–CT imaging. Use of the technique might help optimize the duration and dosing of antimicrobial drugs.
Single-cell transcriptomic analysis identifies a distinct gene signature associated with peripheral monocyte populations that distinguishes people with sepsis from those with sterile inflammation and uninfected controls.
A framework of patient-partnered research allows patients with angiosarcoma to share their samples and clinical records securely to accelerate molecular characterization of tumors and identification of therapeutic approaches.
Transcriptomic analysis of peripheral CD8+ T cells in a cohort of patients with metastatic melanoma receiving checkpoint inhibitors shows that the number of large clones early post-treatment is strongly associated with six-month clinical outcome.
T cell responses specific for HIV-1 Gag peptides increased in HIV-positive recipients of two broadly neutralizing antibodies with prolonged suppression of blood viremia during antiretroviral treatment interruption.
Zika virus vaccination elicits Zika and dengue virus cross-neutralizing antibodies in flavivirus-exposed individuals, potentially enhancing the protective efficacy of the vaccine in flavivirus-endemic regions.
CRISPR–Cas9-mediated gene editing restores dystrophin expression in both pig and human induced pluripotent stem cell models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, with beneficial effects on skeletal muscle and cardiac function.
Most infants with cystic fibrosis have poor early linear growth in their first year despite nutritional supplementation and treatment. Intestinal dysbiosis in these infants is associated with low length, suggesting a path for intervention.
A retrospective analysis of existing computed tomography scans shows the feasibility of an automated process for evaluating osteoporotic fracture risk that could be used as an initial screening tool when FRAX inputs are unavailable.
Leveraging the availability of nationwide electronic health records from over 500,000 pregnancies in Israel, a machine-learning approach offers an alternative means of predicting gestational diabetes at high accuracy in the early stages of pregnancy.