Clinical Research

What to submit

The criteria for consideration of clinical research in Nature Medicine are originality, timeliness and impact on improving human health by addressing unmet clinical needs.

We consider all types of clinical research, including

  • Case-reports and small case series
  • Clinical trials, whether phase 1, 2, 3 or 4
  • Observational studies
  • Meta-analyses
  • Biomarker studies   
  • Public and global health studies

Nature Medicine is also committed to facilitating communication between translational and clinical researchers. As such, we consider “hybrid” studies with preclinical and translational findings reported alongside data from clinical studies.

Clinical studies can be submitted in any of our content types.

Preparing your submission

Nature Medicine follows the recommendations from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) Network for registration and reporting clinical studies.

Registration

All interventional trials must be registered before enrollment of the first participant. Trial registration records must be available in a primary register of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), in ClinicalTrials.gov, or in any publicly accessible database that meets the minimum 24-item trial registration dataset.

The trial number must be clearly indicated in the abstract and methods section of the manuscript. Trials with retrospective registration or with registration in a database that is not publicly accessible cannot be considered.

Study protocol

To enable proper assessment of the work by our editorial team and referees, we request that a copy of the approved study protocol, including the statistical analysis plan, be included with the initial submission. Sensitive content can be redacted. If the original protocol is in a language other than English, a translation should be provided. Any deviations from the plan indicated in the trial registry or study protocol must be justified.

Interim analyses

Interim analyses should be pre-specified in the study protocol. Preliminary analyses of ongoing clinical trials that have not been pre-specified must be justified and are considered on a case-by-case basis. Unplanned post-hoc or exploratory analyses should be clearly indicated as such in the abstract and manuscript text.

Reporting guidelines

  • Case reports or case series – if performed in the setting of a clinical trial evaluating effectiveness in a single patient, a CONSORT extension for N-of-1 trials must be provided; if treatment is provided outside a clinical trial (e.g., as compassionate use, or experimental observational study), authors must provide a statement that the research protocol was approved by IRB and ethics committees and participants gave written informed consent, according to CARE guidelines and in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki principles.
  • Randomized trials must conform to CONSORT 2010 guidelines, and the CONSORT checklist should be submitted with the manuscript and other materials, including the protocol. Non-randomized trials are encouraged to use the CONSORT principles and framework in the reporting of the results. Reports that do not conform to the CONSORT guidelines may need to be revised before formal review.
  • Observational studies (cohort, case–control or cross-sectional designs) must be reported according to the STROBE statement.
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analyses must follow the PRISMA guidelines.
  • Studies reporting biomarkers in association with clinical outcomes should follow the STARD guidelines. For biomarker studies in oncology, we request that authors adhere to REMARK guidelines.
  • Epidemiology studies are encouraged to follow the recommendation in the GATHER statement.   

Data sharing

In accordance with Nature Research policy, a Data Availability Statement (DAS) must be included with all original research manuscripts. Nature Medicine is committed to transparency in data availability, and we request that authors provide a clear statement summarizing what data is available, when and to whom, and how to access it, and clearly stating any restrictions to data access.

Following ICMJE recommendations, clinical trials that began enrolling participants 1 January 2019 and later must include a data sharing plan in the trial's registration. If the data sharing plan changes after registration, this should be reflected in the statement submitted and published with the manuscript, and updated in the registry record.

Competing interests

In the interests of transparency and to help readers form their own judgments of potential bias, Nature Research journals require authors to declare any competing financial and/or non-financial interests in relation to the work described. The corresponding author is responsible for submitting a competing interests statement on behalf of all authors of the paper.

The role of the sponsor in any stage of the study, including manuscript preparation, must be acknowledged.

Additional Resources

Nature Research Editorial Policies

Nature Research competing interests policy

Editorial: Raising the bar for clinical research

Editorial: Confronting conflict of interest

Editorial: Clarifying access to data

Editorial: Redefining Medicine