Volume 9 Issue 8, August 2008

Volume 9 Issue 8

CD8+ T cells mediate protection against the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Shastri and colleagues (p 937; News and Views by Jensen, p 829) identify an immunodominant T. gondii peptide whose production requires processing by the aminopeptidase ER AAP. The original image, generated by two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, shows a cyst containing T. gondii (red) surrounded by antigen-presenting cells (green) and T cells (blue) in the brain of an infected mouse. Original image by M. Schaeffer. Art work by Lewis Long.


  • Editorial |

    Despite pessimism in the media surrounding the recent failure of the Merck HIV vaccine, researchers should applaud their achievements and step up to the challenges ahead.

Meeting Report

  • Meeting Report |

    The AIDS pandemic is caused by human immunodeficiency virus, which was discovered at the Institut Pasteur in 1983. In May 2008, scientists met in Paris to discuss the progress and setbacks of 25 years of research in this field and to debate future directions.

    • Andrew E Armitage
    • , Andrew J McMichael
    •  & Hal Drakesmith

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Autophagy has been suggested—on the basis of in vitro studies—to be involved in defense against bacterial challenge. A study in drosophila now shows the importance of autophagy in vivo and links a pattern recognition receptor to the autophagy pathway.

    • Herbert Virgin
  • News & Views |

    New findings show that ERAAP, an endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase involved in antigen processing, helps mice survive encounters with a feline-derived parasite.

    • Julio C Delgado
    •  & Peter E Jensen
  • News & Views |

    The production of inflammatory interleukin 1β after uptake of silica crystals and alum salt or amyloid-β occurs by a process that involves lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B that activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    • Stephen B Willingham
    •  & Jenny P-Y Ting
  • News & Views |

    Host immunity requires cytotoxic lymphocytes that are able to move toward their targets but are also able to stop after identifying target cells and then establish stable cell-cell contact. A new study shows that separate phosphorylation sites in HS1, an actin cytoskeleton–remodeling factor, can regulate both processes.

    • Peter Beemiller
    •  & Matthew F Krummel
  • News & Views |

    A key regulator of the balance of signals that activate effector mechanisms versus those that restrain them, β-arrestin 2 mediates the inhibition of natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

    • Yenan T Bryceson
    •  & Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren