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Shi and colleagues describe a subset of erythroid progenitor cells with immune characteristics that can be isolated at various developmental stages from the yolk sack to the adult bone marrow during human ontogenesis.
A broad neutralizing antibody (bnAb) response is required to combat SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Andrabi and colleagues isolated and characterized a large panel of sarbecovirus bnAbs from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 and been recently vaccinated. Many of these antibodies can neutralize all variants of concern and demonstrate prophylaxis in mice infected with diverse sarbecoviruses.
How ILC1s respond to cancer cells is controversial. Caligiuri and colleagues show that IFNγ released by ILC1s can control acute myeloid leukemia by promoting apoptosis of leukemia stem cells and by favoring their differentiation into non-leukemic cells.
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that possess traits of adaptive immunity, such as memory formation. O’Sullivan and colleagues show that the transcription factor Fli1 has important roles in controlling the establishment of NK cell memory.
Sieweke and colleagues show that alveolar macrophages maintain a core gene expression program even after several months in culture, and reacquire full transcriptional and epigenetic identity after transplantation into the lung.
Nature Immunology has commissioned a Series of Reviews and a Perspective that discuss the innate and adaptive aspects of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, the possible mechanisms behind the large clinical variability in the response to infection, and considerations for vaccine and therapy strategies.
During homeostasis, TH1 cells activate a cell-intrinsic inflammatory shutdown program and shift to IL-10 cytokine production. Chauss et al. find that this TH1 cell homeostatic program is dependent on vitamin D signaling and is disrupted during severe COVID-19.