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Volume 23 Issue 10, October 2022

Translation efficiency during T cell activation

Naive T cells are quiescent but undergo dynamic changes after antigenic activation. Flavell and colleagues show that upregulation of the tRNA methyltransferase proteins TRMT61A and TRMT6 and N 1-methyladenosine modification of tRNAs contribute to accelerated mRNA translation efficiency, in particular synthesis of MYC protein, and are required for rapid T cell proliferation.

Image Credit: Jing Zhou, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Cover design: Amie Fernandez

Meeting Reports

  • On 3–8 June 2022, the First International Aegean Conference on Mesenchymal Cells in Health & Disease took place in Chania, Crete, and brought together clinicians and scientists who work on mesenchymal or stromal cell biology across different fields including immunity, inflammation and cancer.

    • Vasiliki Koliaraki
    • Gian-Paolo Dotto
    • George Kollias
    Meeting Report


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Research Highlights

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News & Views

  • m1A58 is a common tRNA modification that can influence protein translational efficiency. Here Liu et al. reveal that tRNA methylation controls in vivo T cell activation by enhancing translation of the key transcription factor Myc.

    • Julia M. Marchingo
    News & Views
  • Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine recipients differ in infection history and the magnitude of their elicited antibody response. A large human cohort distinguished by these parameters are queried for effector T cell subsets, memory B cells and ability to recognize epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

    • Andrea J. Sant
    • Patrick C. Wilson
    News & Views
  • Akin to adult stem cells, precursor exhausted T cells are hierarchically organized, with long-lived CD62L+ stem-like T cells at the apex of the system. The transcription factor c-Myb controls the formation, maintenance and therapeutic function of these cells, with important implications for their clinical utilization.

    • Christoph Heuser
    • Luca Gattinoni
    News & Views
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Research Briefings

  • During T cell activation, tRNA-m1A ‘writers’ TRMT61A and TRMT6 are upregulated to modify a group of early tRNA species and promote efficient translation of certain pre-cell-cycling proteins, thus ensuring rapid T cell proliferation and a timely adaptive immune response.

    Research Briefing
  • Immunotherapeutic targeting of the surface glycoprotein CD19 has markedly improved outcomes in patients with relapsed and refractory B cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screening identifies modulators of CD19 mRNA processing that affect the abundance of the surface protein in human B cell leukemia cells, with the potential to improve antigen-directed immunotherapy efficacy.

    Research Briefing
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Review Articles

  • The explosion of single-cell and systems approaches in immunology risks leaving the uninitiated behind. This guide to systems immunology is designed for immunologists who want an introduction to the area.

    • Lorenzo Bonaguro
    • Jonas Schulte-Schrepping
    • Joachim L. Schultze
    Review Article
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