Volume 18 Issue 4, April 2017

Volume 18 Issue 4

Although the hierarchical T cell responses induced by infection or immunization have been studied extensively, little is known about the hierarchies of B cell immunodominance. Yewdell and colleagues (p 456; News and Views by Jacob, p 367) define the hierarchy of B cell immunodominance to the five main antigenic sites of the globular domain of hemagglutinin from influenza A virus. The original confocal image by Heather Hickman shows germinal centers (green) in the mediastinal lymph nodes 14 days after respiratory infection with influenza virus. Artwork by Lewis Long.

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    The transcription factor Bhlhe41 determines the survival and repertoire of B-1a cells.

    • Henry H Wortis
  • News & Views |

    Antibodies to neutralizing epitopes on hemagglutinin exhibit reproducible dynamic immunodominance patterns over time. Early responses target largely the Cb site, followed by Sb dominance and a concomitant rise in the diversity of neutralizing-antibody specificities.

    • Gordon A Dale
    • , Jessica R Shartouny
    •  & Joshy Jacob
  • News & Views |

    THEMIS, the enigmatic regulator of T cell selection in the thymus, controls selection by oxidizing and suppressing the activity of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1.

    • David L Wiest
  • News & Views |

    Throughout ontogeny, the γδ TCR repertoire in human blood becomes less diverse and more focused, yet is private in nature, and specific adult γδ T cell subsets undergo substantial clonal expansion after challenge with cytomegalovirus.

    • Bruno Silva-Santos
    •  & Jessica Strid

Research Highlights

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    O'Shea and colleagues review recent advances in Jak–STAT biology, focusing on immune cell function, disease etiology and therapeutic intervention, as well as broader principles of gene regulation and signal-dependent transcription factors.

    • Alejandro V Villarino
    • , Yuka Kanno
    •  & John J O'Shea
  • Review Article |

    Microglia are by far the best-characterized macrophages in the CNS, but non-parenchymal populations, such as those found in the meninges, are being increasingly studied. Prinz et al. review the ontogeny and functions of both parenchymal macrophages and non-parenchymal macrophages the CNS.

    • Marco Prinz
    • , Daniel Erny
    •  & Nora Hagemeyer

Articles

  • Article |

    γδ T cells are generally understood to be innate lymphocytes. Prinz and colleagues show that human γδ T cells reconstituted after bone-marrow transplantation have a distinct repertoire that can be shaped by infection with cytomegalovirus, which suggests features of adaptive immunity.

    • Sarina Ravens
    • , Christian Schultze-Florey
    • , Solaiman Raha
    • , Inga Sandrock
    • , Melanie Drenker
    • , Linda Oberdörfer
    • , Annika Reinhardt
    • , Inga Ravens
    • , Maleen Beck
    • , Robert Geffers
    • , Constantin von Kaisenberg
    • , Michael Heuser
    • , Felicitas Thol
    • , Arnold Ganser
    • , Reinhold Förster
    • , Christian Koenecke
    •  & Immo Prinz
  • Article |

    Mucosal-associated invariant T cells recognize vitamin-B-derived ligands presented via the major-histocompatibility-complex-like molecule MR1. Rossjohn and colleagues demonstrate that these cells recognize a wide variety of ligands, some derived from common drugs, in an agonist or antagonist manner.

    • Andrew N Keller
    • , Sidonia B G Eckle
    • , Weijun Xu
    • , Ligong Liu
    • , Victoria A Hughes
    • , Jeffrey Y W Mak
    • , Bronwyn S Meehan
    • , Troi Pediongco
    • , Richard W Birkinshaw
    • , Zhenjun Chen
    • , Huimeng Wang
    • , Criselle D'Souza
    • , Lars Kjer-Nielsen
    • , Nicholas A Gherardin
    • , Dale I Godfrey
    • , Lyudmila Kostenko
    • , Alexandra J Corbett
    • , Anthony W Purcell
    • , David P Fairlie
    • , James McCluskey
    •  & Jamie Rossjohn
  • Article |

    Tr1 cells have potent regulatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Kuchroo and colleagues comprehensively describe the epigenetic, transcriptional and gene regulatory landscape that is essential for Tr1 cell differentiation.

    • Katarzyna Karwacz
    • , Emily R Miraldi
    • , Maria Pokrovskii
    • , Asaf Madi
    • , Nir Yosef
    • , Ivo Wortman
    • , Xi Chen
    • , Aaron Watters
    • , Nicholas Carriero
    • , Amit Awasthi
    • , Aviv Regev
    • , Richard Bonneau
    • , Dan Littman
    •  & Vijay K Kuchroo
  • Article |

    CD8+ T cells rapidly commence transcriptional changes after antigenic encounter and priming. Yeo and colleagues find substantial transcriptional heterogeneity among responding lymphocytes, particularly at the first division, that influences cell fate.

    • Boyko Kakaradov
    • , Janilyn Arsenio
    • , Christella E Widjaja
    • , Zhaoren He
    • , Stefan Aigner
    • , Patrick J Metz
    • , Bingfei Yu
    • , Ellen J Wehrens
    • , Justine Lopez
    • , Stephanie H Kim
    • , Elina I Zuniga
    • , Ananda W Goldrath
    • , John T Chang
    •  & Gene W Yeo
  • Article |

    B-1a B cells are a distinct subset of mature B cells that provide innate-like protection against pathogens. Busslinger and colleagues identify the transcription factor Bhlhe41 as being essential for B-1a development and self-renewal.

    • Taras Kreslavsky
    • , Bojan Vilagos
    • , Hiromi Tagoh
    • , Daniela Kostanova Poliakova
    • , Tanja A Schwickert
    • , Miriam Wöhner
    • , Markus Jaritz
    • , Siegfried Weiss
    • , Reshma Taneja
    • , Moritz J Rossner
    •  & Meinrad Busslinger
  • Article |

    Antigenic epitopes differ in their immunogenicity. Yewdell and colleagues show that B cell and antibody responses to influenza A virus infection display reproducible dynamic immunodominance hierarchies to viral hemagglutinin epitopes.

    • Davide Angeletti
    • , James S Gibbs
    • , Matthew Angel
    • , Ivan Kosik
    • , Heather D Hickman
    • , Gregory M Frank
    • , Suman R Das
    • , Adam K Wheatley
    • , Madhu Prabhakaran
    • , David J Leggat
    • , Adrian B McDermott
    •  & Jonathan W Yewdell

Resource

  • Resource |

    Antigenic drift and reassortment alters the epitopes of influenza virus. Krammer and colleagues reveal the cross-reactivity of antibody responses to viral hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in humans and several animal models, but the most prominent responses reflect ‘original antigenic sin’ to viral exposure.

    • Raffael Nachbagauer
    • , Angela Choi
    • , Ariana Hirsh
    • , Irina Margine
    • , Sayaka Iida
    • , Aldo Barrera
    • , Marcela Ferres
    • , Randy A Albrecht
    • , Adolfo García-Sastre
    • , Nicole M Bouvier
    • , Kimihito Ito
    • , Rafael A Medina
    • , Peter Palese
    •  & Florian Krammer

Corrigenda

Errata