Volume 18 Issue 3, March 2017

Volume 18 Issue 3

The metabolic control of B cell fate is unclear. Rickert and colleagues (p 303) show that the kinase GSK3 is a metabolic checkpoint regulator in B cells. The original image by Julia Jellusova shows a mouse spleen 7 days after immunization with sheep red blood cells. Artwork by Lewis Long.

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a cytokine associated with inflammation, obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Surprisingly, IL-1β is also required for maintaining steady-state glucose homeostasis by potentiating postprandial insulin secretion.

    • Marit Hjorth
    •  & Mark A Febbraio
  • News & Views |

    Silencing of the chromatin remodeler Mi-2β in keratinocytes triggers local skin inflammation. Regulatory T cells activated by the cytokine TSLP control the shift from local skin inflammation to systemic lethal disease.

    • Lucia Pattarini
    •  & Vassili Soumelis
  • News & Views |

    Elevated signaling via the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1 in macrophages stimulates spontaneous granuloma formation in mice and is associated with the progression of sarcoidosis in humans.

    • Antonio J Pagán
    •  & Lalita Ramakrishnan

Research Highlights

Review

Articles

  • Article |

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are thought to originate at the double-positive stage of thymopoiesis. Taniguchi and colleagues find that a subset of NKT cells also appear earlier, at the double-negative stage, and that these give rise to liver-resident NKT cells with highly potent effector function.

    • Nyambayar Dashtsoodol
    • , Tomokuni Shigeura
    • , Minako Aihara
    • , Ritsuko Ozawa
    • , Satoshi Kojo
    • , Michishige Harada
    • , Takaho A Endo
    • , Takashi Watanabe
    • , Osamu Ohara
    •  & Masaru Taniguchi
  • Article |

    The cytokine IL-1β has well-established harmful effects on pancreatic islet function. Donath and colleagues identify an acute wave of postprandial IL-1β release and show that this unexpectedly has a positive effect on insulin secretion and the maintenance of normal metabolic function.

    • Erez Dror
    • , Elise Dalmas
    • , Daniel T Meier
    • , Stephan Wueest
    • , Julien Thévenet
    • , Constanze Thienel
    • , Katharina Timper
    • , Thierry M Nordmann
    • , Shuyang Traub
    • , Friederike Schulze
    • , Flurin Item
    • , David Vallois
    • , Francois Pattou
    • , Julie Kerr-Conte
    • , Vanessa Lavallard
    • , Thierry Berney
    • , Bernard Thorens
    • , Daniel Konrad
    • , Marianne Böni-Schnetzler
    •  & Marc Y Donath
  • Article |

    Macrophages are critical for granuloma formation, but the cell-intrinsic mechanisms remain unknown. Weichhart and colleagues demonstrate that chronic mTOR activity leads to macrophage-dependent granuloma formation, which may have relevance to sarcoidosis.

    • Monika Linke
    • , Ha Thi Thanh Pham
    • , Karl Katholnig
    • , Thomas Schnöller
    • , Anne Miller
    • , Florian Demel
    • , Birgit Schütz
    • , Margit Rosner
    • , Boris Kovacic
    • , Nyamdelger Sukhbaatar
    • , Birgit Niederreiter
    • , Stephan Blüml
    • , Peter Kuess
    • , Veronika Sexl
    • , Mathias Müller
    • , Mario Mikula
    • , Wolfram Weckwerth
    • , Arvand Haschemi
    • , Martin Susani
    • , Markus Hengstschläger
    • , Michael J Gambello
    •  & Thomas Weichhart
  • Article |

    Mature B cells remain in a quiescent state until activated. Rickert and colleagues identify a prominent role for the kinase Gsk3 in resting naive B cells and in activated germinal center B cells that restrains the production of Myc and reactive oxygen species and prevents metabolic collapse.

    • Julia Jellusova
    • , Matthew H Cato
    • , John R Apgar
    • , Parham Ramezani-Rad
    • , Charlotte R Leung
    • , Cindi Chen
    • , Adam D Richardson
    • , Elaine M Conner
    • , Robert J Benschop
    • , James R Woodgett
    •  & Robert C Rickert
  • Article |

    The signaling receptor Notch is required for the generation of marginal zone B cells. Hammad and colleagues show that Notch signaling activates the kinase Taok3 and surface expression of the metalloproteinase ADAM10, which commits transitional B cells to the marginal zone B cell fate.

    • Hamida Hammad
    • , Matthias Vanderkerken
    • , Philippe Pouliot
    • , Kim Deswarte
    • , Wendy Toussaint
    • , Karl Vergote
    • , Lana Vandersarren
    • , Sophie Janssens
    • , Ioanna Ramou
    • , Savvas N Savvides
    • , Jody J Haigh
    • , Rudi Hendriks
    • , Manfred Kopf
    • , Katleen Craessaerts
    • , Bart de Strooper
    • , John F Kearney
    • , Daniel H Conrad
    •  & Bart N Lambrecht
  • Article |

    FcμR serves as a receptor for soluble IgM. Baumgarth and colleagues show that intracellular FcμR constrains the surface expression of IgM. Lack of FcμR alters B cell populations and enhances autoantibody production. FcμR thereby serves as a critical regulator of B cell homeostasis.

    • Trang T T Nguyen
    • , Kathrin Kläsener
    • , Christa Zürn
    • , Patricia A Castillo
    • , Ingrid Brust-Mascher
    • , Denise M Imai
    • , Charles L Bevins
    • , Colin Reardon
    • , Michael Reth
    •  & Nicole Baumgarth
  • Article |

    Skin is constantly exposed to environmental stressors. Georgopoulos and colleagues show that regulatory T cells respond to the cytokine TSLP produced by stressed keratinocytes and that a loss of skin Treg cell expression of TSLPR leads to lethal inflammation.

    • Mariko Kashiwagi
    • , Junichi Hosoi
    • , Jen-Feng Lai
    • , Janice Brissette
    • , Steven F Ziegler
    • , Bruce A Morgan
    •  & Katia Georgopoulos
  • Article |

    Transcription factors involved in consolidation of the induced regulatory T cell program are still being identified. Wu et al. demonstrate that the transcription factor musculin is critical for supporting the differentiation of these cells and prevents their acquisition of a T helper type 2 phenotype.

    • Chuan Wu
    • , Zuojia Chen
    • , Valerie Dardalhon
    • , Sheng Xiao
    • , Theresa Thalhamer
    • , Mengyang Liao
    • , Asaf Madi
    • , Rafael F Franca
    • , Timothy Han
    • , Mohammed Oukka
    •  & Vijay Kuchroo