Volume 18 Issue 1, January 2017

Volume 18 Issue 1

The cellular sources of the cytokine IL-6 that induces the differentiation of the TH17 subset of helper T cells are unclear. Korn and colleagues (p 74; News and Views by Quintana, p 8) now show that Sirpα+ dendritic cells trans-present IL-6 to T cells through a process that requires the IL-6 receptor subunit IL-6Rα bound to dendritic cells. The original immunofluorescence image by Marina Herwerth shows staining of IL-6 (green) in co-cultures of T cells (white nuclei; DNA-binding dye DAPI) and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (red cytoplasm; DAPI). Artwork by Lewis Long.

Meeting Report

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    The relationship between atopic dermatitis and air pollution has been long debated but has now been connected via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its control of skin innervation and the consequent triggering of an itch-scratch response.

    • Kenji Kabashima
    • , Atsushi Otsuka
    •  & Takashi Nomura
  • News & Views |

    Altered signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) promotes an adipose-tissue-like phenotype in invariant natural killer cells (iNKT cells) during thymic development and causes selective enrichment for iNKT cells in adipose tissues.

    • Jayati Mookerjee-Basu
    •  & Dietmar J Kappes
  • News & Views |

    A surprising molecular mechanism underlying signal integration and programmed proliferation in adaptive immunity has been identified: the cell-cycle regulator Myc enables a lymphocyte to add up the strength of signals it receives and time its response accordingly.

    • Becca Asquith
    •  & Rob J de Boer

Research Highlights

Articles

  • Article |

    Natural killer cells are a rapid source of the cytokine IFN-γ that influences ensuing immune responses. Schwab and colleagues report that gradients of the signaling lipid S1P regulate the positioning of natural killer cells in lymph nodes necessary for this response.

    • Victoria Fang
    • , V Sai Chaluvadi
    • , Willy D Ramos-Perez
    • , Alejandra Mendoza
    • , Audrey Baeyens
    • , Richard Rivera
    • , Jerold Chun
    • , Michael Cammer
    •  & Susan R Schwab
  • Article |

    TET proteins regulate 5-methylcytosine epigenetic marks, and thereby regulate chromatin accessibility. Rao and colleagues show that the combined loss of TET2 and TET3 in thymocytes skews development to iNKT17 cells as a result of upregulation of RORγt, which leads to lymphoproliferative disease and premature death.

    • Ageliki Tsagaratou
    • , Edahí González-Avalos
    • , Sini Rautio
    • , James P Scott-Browne
    • , Susan Togher
    • , William A Pastor
    • , Ellen V Rothenberg
    • , Lukas Chavez
    • , Harri Lähdesmäki
    •  & Anjana Rao
  • Article |

    Cerebral malaria infection can provoke fatal neuroinflammation. Gros and colleagues identify an ubiquitin-modification axis that exacerbates neuroinflammation and that involves TRIM25 and USP15, which jointly promote type I interferon production.

    • Sabrina Torre
    • , Maria J Polyak
    • , David Langlais
    • , Nassima Fodil
    • , James M Kennedy
    • , Irena Radovanovic
    • , Joanne Berghout
    • , Gabriel A Leiva-Torres
    • , Connie M Krawczyk
    • , Subburaj Ilangumaran
    • , Karen Mossman
    • , Chen Liang
    • , Klaus-Peter Knobeloch
    • , Luke M Healy
    • , Jack Antel
    • , Nathalie Arbour
    • , Alexandre Prat
    • , Jacek Majewski
    • , Mark Lathrop
    • , Silvia M Vidal
    •  & Philippe Gros
  • Article |

    There are suspected links between air pollution and atopic dermatitis, but the mechanism has remained unclear. Yamamoto and colleagues demonstrate that air pollutants trigger activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the skin, hyperinnervation and an itch-scratch cycle that leads to atopic dermatitis.

    • Takanori Hidaka
    • , Eisaku Ogawa
    • , Eri H Kobayashi
    • , Takafumi Suzuki
    • , Ryo Funayama
    • , Takeshi Nagashima
    • , Taku Fujimura
    • , Setsuya Aiba
    • , Keiko Nakayama
    • , Ryuhei Okuyama
    •  & Masayuki Yamamoto
  • Article |

    Korn and colleagues report that Sirpα+ dendritic cells trans-present the cytokine IL-6 to T cells through a process that requires its receptor IL-6Rα bound to dendritic cells and that trans-presentation is needed to generate pathogenic cells of the TH17 subset of helper T cells in vivo.

    • Sylvia Heink
    • , Nir Yogev
    • , Christoph Garbers
    • , Marina Herwerth
    • , Lilian Aly
    • , Christiane Gasperi
    • , Veronika Husterer
    • , Andrew L Croxford
    • , Katja Möller-Hackbarth
    • , Harald S Bartsch
    • , Karl Sotlar
    • , Stefan Krebs
    • , Tommy Regen
    • , Helmut Blum
    • , Bernhard Hemmer
    • , Thomas Misgeld
    • , Thomas F Wunderlich
    • , Juan Hidalgo
    • , Mohamed Oukka
    • , Stefan Rose-John
    • , Marc Schmidt-Supprian
    • , Ari Waisman
    •  & Thomas Korn
  • Article |

    Krönke and colleagues show that the cytokine IL-23 controls the glycosylation profile and inflammatory activity of autoantibodies through control of sialyltransferase activity in plasma cells mediated by the TH17 subset of helper T cells.

    • René Pfeifle
    • , Tobias Rothe
    • , Natacha Ipseiz
    • , Hans U Scherer
    • , Stephan Culemann
    • , Ulrike Harre
    • , Jochen A Ackermann
    • , Martina Seefried
    • , Arnd Kleyer
    • , Stefan Uderhardt
    • , Benjamin Haugg
    • , Axel J Hueber
    • , Patrick Daum
    • , Gordon F Heidkamp
    • , Changrong Ge
    • , Sybille Böhm
    • , Anja Lux
    • , Wolfgang Schuh
    • , Iryna Magorivska
    • , Kutty S Nandakumar
    • , Erik Lönnblom
    • , Christoph Becker
    • , Diana Dudziak
    • , Manfred Wuhrer
    • , Yoann Rombouts
    • , Carolien A Koeleman
    • , René Toes
    • , Thomas H Winkler
    • , Rikard Holmdahl
    • , Martin Herrmann
    • , Stephan Blüml
    • , Falk Nimmerjahn
    • , Georg Schett
    •  & Gerhard Krönke