Volume 18 Issue 12, December 2017

Volume 18 Issue 12

The activated immune system monopolizes the pool of amino acids in blood, diverting them from the brain and thus restricting the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine. Fagarasan and colleagues (p 1342; News and Views by Boussiotis p 1281) show that chronic activation of T cells leads to behavioral abnormalities in mice deficient in the inhibitory receptor PD-1. The original image by Matteo Guerrini shows tryptophan hydroxylase–positive neurons (yellow) devoid of serotonin (magenta) in the raphe nuclei (cyan) of PD-1-deficient mice. Art work by Erin Dewalt.

Obituary

Comment

  • Comment |

    High-throughput sequencing of B and T cell receptors is routinely being applied in studies of adaptive immunity. The Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire (AIRR) Community was formed in 2015 to address issues in AIRR sequencing studies, including the development of reporting standards for the sharing of data sets.

    • Florian Rubelt
    • , Christian E Busse
    • , Syed Ahmad Chan Bukhari
    • , Jean-Philippe Bürckert
    • , Encarnita Mariotti-Ferrandiz
    • , Lindsay G Cowell
    • , Corey T Watson
    • , Nishanth Marthandan
    • , William J Faison
    • , Uri Hershberg
    • , Uri Laserson
    • , Brian D Corrie
    • , Mark M Davis
    • , Bjoern Peters
    • , Marie-Paule Lefranc
    • , Jamie K Scott
    • , Felix Breden
    • , The AIRR Community
    • , Eline T Luning Prak
    •  & Steven H Kleinstein

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Replacement of resident alveolar macrophages by monocyte-derived macrophages after herpesvirus infection protects against asthma.

    • Bérengère de Laval
    •  & Michael H Sieweke
  • News & Views |

    Abolishing signals mediated by the inhibitory receptor PD-1 results in a systemic decrease in tryptophan and tyrosine, which leads to a striking deficiency in the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine in the brain and anxiety-like behavior and exacerbated fear.

    • Laura Strauss
    • , Nikolaos Patsoukis
    •  & Vassiliki A Boussiotis
  • News & Views |

    Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) normally preserve gut-barrier integrity but can switch their phenotype to have a pathogenic role in type 1 diabetes.

    • Lina Petersone
    •  & Lucy S K Walker
  • News & Views |

    Adenosine produced by apoptotic regulatory T cells (Treg cells) has a more important immunosuppressive role in the tumor microenvironment than that of live Treg cells. This discovery raises the possibility of novel strategies for cancer immunotherapy.

    • Yosuke Togashi
    •  & Hiroyoshi Nishikawa

Research Highlights

Review

  • Review Article |

    Lambris and colleagues discuss new and previously unanticipated functions of complement and how these affect immunity and disease pathogenesis.

    • George Hajishengallis
    • , Edimara S Reis
    • , Dimitrios C Mastellos
    • , Daniel Ricklin
    •  & John D Lambris

Articles

  • Article |

    NLR proteins contribute to antiviral immune responses. Lemon and colleagues show that NLRX1 promotes antiviral responses in hepatocytes by competing with the kinase PKR for viral double-stranded RNA, which allows accumulation of the transcription factor IRF1 for early control of viral replication.

    • Hui Feng
    • , Erik M Lenarcic
    • , Daisuke Yamane
    • , Eliane Wauthier
    • , Jinyao Mo
    • , Haitao Guo
    • , David R McGivern
    • , Olga González-López
    • , Ichiro Misumi
    • , Lola M Reid
    • , Jason K Whitmire
    • , Jenny P-Y Ting
    • , Joseph A Duncan
    • , Nathaniel J Moorman
    •  & Stanley M Lemon
  • Article |

    Gillet and colleagues find that infection with a gammaherpesvirus confers strong and lasting protection against airway allergy through the replacement of lung-resident alveolar macrophages with recruited regulatory monocytes of bone marrow origin.

    • Bénédicte Machiels
    • , Mickael Dourcy
    • , Xue Xiao
    • , Justine Javaux
    • , Claire Mesnil
    • , Catherine Sabatel
    • , Daniel Desmecht
    • , François Lallemand
    • , Philippe Martinive
    • , Hamida Hammad
    • , Martin Guilliams
    • , Benjamin Dewals
    • , Alain Vanderplasschen
    • , Bart N Lambrecht
    • , Fabrice Bureau
    •  & Laurent Gillet
  • Article |

    Type 1 diabetes has a multifactorial etiology. Lehuen and colleagues demonstrate that MAIT cells serve both positive roles and negative roles in type 1 diabetes by maintaining gut integrity and limiting pancreatic inflammation but also directly destroying β-cells.

    • Ophélie Rouxel
    • , Jennifer Da silva
    • , Lucie Beaudoin
    • , Isabelle Nel
    • , Céline Tard
    • , Lucie Cagninacci
    • , Badr Kiaf
    • , Masaya Oshima
    • , Marc Diedisheim
    • , Marion Salou
    • , Alexandra Corbett
    • , Jamie Rossjohn
    • , James McCluskey
    • , Raphael Scharfmann
    • , Manuela Battaglia
    • , Michel Polak
    • , Olivier Lantz
    • , Jacques Beltrand
    •  & Agnès Lehuen
  • Article |

    The tumor microenvironment represents a stressful cellular environment. Zou and colleagues show that Treg cells in tumors have heightened sensitivity to apoptosis, but unexpectedly this increases their suppressive potency.

    • Tomasz Maj
    • , Wei Wang
    • , Joel Crespo
    • , Hongjuan Zhang
    • , Weimin Wang
    • , Shuang Wei
    • , Lili Zhao
    • , Linda Vatan
    • , Irene Shao
    • , Wojciech Szeliga
    • , Costas Lyssiotis
    • , J Rebecca Liu
    • , Ilona Kryczek
    •  & Weiping Zou
  • Article |

    Fagarasan and colleagues show that excessive activation of T cells in mice deficient in the inhibitory receptor PD-1 causes a systemic decrease in tryptophan and tyrosine, which leads to deficiency in serotonin and dopamine in the brain and behavioral changes.

    • Michio Miyajima
    • , Baihao Zhang
    • , Yuki Sugiura
    • , Kazuhiro Sonomura
    • , Matteo M Guerrini
    • , Yumi Tsutsui
    • , Mikako Maruya
    • , Alexis Vogelzang
    • , Kenji Chamoto
    • , Kurara Honda
    • , Takatoshi Hikida
    • , Satomi Ito
    • , Hongyan Qin
    • , Rikako Sanuki
    • , Keiichiro Suzuki
    • , Takahisa Furukawa
    • , Yasushi Ishihama
    • , Fumihiko Matsuda
    • , Makoto Suematsu
    • , Tasuku Honjo
    •  & Sidonia Fagarasan
  • Article |

    The polarization of leukocytes toward chemoattractants is essential for their directed migration. Chen and colleagues show that the phosphoinositide-transfer protein TIPE2 functions as a coordinator of leukocyte polarity.

    • Svetlana A Fayngerts
    • , Zhaojun Wang
    • , Ali Zamani
    • , Honghong Sun
    • , Amanda E Boggs
    • , Thomas P Porturas
    • , Weidong Xie
    • , Mei Lin
    • , Terry Cathopoulis
    • , Jason R Goldsmith
    • , Anastassios Vourekas
    •  & Youhai H Chen

Corrigenda