Volume 17 Issue 8, August 2016

Volume 17 Issue 8

Knowledge about the signals that drive the differentiation of human follicular helper T cells is still very limited. Crotty and colleagues (p 976) demonstrated that the cytokine activin A, which is physiologically expressed in sites in which such differentiation is initiated, regulates multiple facets of the biology of these cells. The original confocal image by Zbigniew Mikulski is a Hoechst stain of cells in a human tonsil section. Artwork by Lewis Long.

Obituary

Comment

  • Comment |

    Mass cytometry is shaping up to be a transformative technology for the description of immunological cell populations. In their Commentary, however, Newell and Cheng report that with great power comes great complexity and concomitant challenges for data analysis and visualization.

    • Evan W Newell
    •  & Yang Cheng

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    The thymic development of CD8+ T cells requires the presentation of different sets of peptides on major histocompatibility complex class I for positive selection and negative selection.

    • Joanna Brzostek
    •  & Nicholas R J Gascoigne
  • News & Views |

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch limits interleukin 17A (IL-17A)-mediated intestinal inflammation by targeting the transcription factor ROR-γt for proteasomal degradation.

    • Sascha Rutz
    •  & Wenjun Ouyang
  • News & Views |

    The Pyrin inflammasome guard is disabled if the activity of small cellular GTPase is compromised in response to defects in the mevalonate pathway and is disabled directly by mutations in the gene encoding Pyrin, which results in the interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-driven autoinflammatory diseases MKD and FMF.

    • Andrea Dorfleutner
    •  & Christian Stehlik
  • News & Views |

    Induction of the transcription factor Bcl11b in early T cell precursors is supported by three positive forces: signaling via the transmembrane receptor Notch1 provides stochastic permissivity; the transcription factors TCF-1 and GATA-3 poise the locus for expression; and the transcription factor Runx1 steps in to raise expression.

    • Katia Georgopoulos

Research Highlights

Review

  • Review Article |

    IL-1α is a ubiquitously expressed cytokine that has diverse roles in immunity and homeostasis. Di Paolo and Shayakhmetov review IL-1α's distinctive and important role in inflammation.

    • Nelson C Di Paolo
    •  & Dmitry M Shayakhmetov

Articles

  • Article |

    Deficiency in mevalonate kinase causes autoinflammatory disease. Wang and colleagues define the detailed mechanistic basis that leads to this disease phenotype in mice and humans.

    • Murali K Akula
    • , Man Shi
    • , Zhaozhao Jiang
    • , Celia E Foster
    • , David Miao
    • , Annie S Li
    • , Xiaoman Zhang
    • , Ruth M Gavin
    • , Sorcha D Forde
    • , Gail Germain
    • , Susan Carpenter
    • , Charles V Rosadini
    • , Kira Gritsman
    • , Jae Jin Chae
    • , Randolph Hampton
    • , Neal Silverman
    • , Ellen M Gravallese
    • , Jonathan C Kagan
    • , Katherine A Fitzgerald
    • , Daniel L Kastner
    • , Douglas T Golenbock
    • , Martin O Bergo
    •  & Donghai Wang
  • Article |

    The chemokine CXCL1 serves a critical role in inflammation by mediating the recruitment of neutrophils. Hu and colleagues demonstrate that the transcriptional repressor Hes1 controls CXCL1 via an unusual mechanism that prevents transcription elongation.

    • Yingli Shang
    • , Maddalena Coppo
    • , Teng He
    • , Fei Ning
    • , Li Yu
    • , Lan Kang
    • , Bin Zhang
    • , Chanyang Ju
    • , Yu Qiao
    • , Baohong Zhao
    • , Manfred Gessler
    • , Inez Rogatsky
    •  & Xiaoyu Hu
  • Article |

    Through analyses of β-chain variable regions in self-reactive T cell antigen receptors, Huseby and colleagues show that an index based on the interfacial hydrophobicity of amino acids at positions 6 and 7 of the CDR3β segment distinguishes self-reactive T cell antigen receptors.

    • Brian D Stadinski
    • , Karthik Shekhar
    • , Iria Gómez-Touriño
    • , Jonathan Jung
    • , Katsuhiro Sasaki
    • , Andrew K Sewell
    • , Mark Peakman
    • , Arup K Chakraborty
    •  & Eric S Huseby
  • Article |

    Nikolich-Žugich and colleagues describe a unique subset of human T cells with a naive phenotype and the ability to rapidly produce cytokines in response to engagement of the T cell antigen receptor.

    • Vesna Pulko
    • , John S Davies
    • , Carmine Martinez
    • , Marion C Lanteri
    • , Michael P Busch
    • , Michael S Diamond
    • , Kenneth Knox
    • , Erin C Bush
    • , Peter A Sims
    • , Shripad Sinari
    • , Dean Billheimer
    • , Elias K Haddad
    • , Kristy O Murray
    • , Anne M Wertheimer
    •  & Janko Nikolich-Žugich
  • Article |

    Crotty and colleagues identify activin A as a regulator of human TFH cell differentiation. The effects of activin A show evolutionary divergence.

    • Michela Locci
    • , Jennifer E Wu
    • , Fortuna Arumemi
    • , Zbigniew Mikulski
    • , Carol Dahlberg
    • , Andrew T Miller
    •  & Shane Crotty
  • Article |

    Sanchez-Madrid and colleagues show that CD69 associates with the amino acid transporter LAT1-CD98 to control the uptake of tryptophan and AhR-dependent secretion of IL-22 by skin γδ T cells.

    • Danay Cibrian
    • , María Laura Saiz
    • , Hortensia de la Fuente
    • , Raquel Sánchez-Díaz
    • , Olga Moreno-Gonzalo
    • , Inmaculada Jorge
    • , Alessia Ferrarini
    • , Jesús Vázquez
    • , Carmen Punzón
    • , Manuel Fresno
    • , Miguel Vicente-Manzanares
    • , Esteban Daudén
    • , Pedro M Fernández-Salguero
    • , Pilar Martín
    •  & Francisco Sánchez-Madrid

Errata