Volume 17 Issue 6, June 2016

Volume 17 Issue 6

Nerlov and colleagues (p 666; News and Views by Sarrazin and Sieweke, p 609) use single-cell transcriptome profiling to investigate early differentiation into the hematopoietic lineage. Original image by Roy Drissen of cytospins of single pre–granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells that express the transcription factor GATA-1 shows the simultaneous development of cells of the erythroid, megakaryocyte and eosinophil lineage. Artwork by Lewis Long

Comment

  • Comment |

    Two approaches have been widely applied in ethics education in the biomedical sciences: field-specific compliance and professional decision processes. Both approaches offer unique benefits to trainees, but future courses that integrate these two approaches might prove particularly valuable.

    • Michael D Mumford
    • , Logan L Watts
    • , Kelsey E Medeiros
    • , Tyler J Mulhearn
    • , Logan M Steele
    •  & Shane Connelly

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Single-cell transcriptome analysis has identified progenitor populations with mast-cell and eosinophil potential that are distinct from the neutrophil-monocyte lineage, segregate early in hematopoietic development and can be discriminated by expression of the transcription factor GATA-1.

    • Sandrine Sarrazin
    •  & Michael H Sieweke
  • News & Views |

    Tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) perform diverse roles in regulating mucosal homeostasis and inflammation. The transdifferentiation of ILC2s into interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing ILC1-like cells generates a highly inflammatory immune cell.

    • Gabrielle T Belz
  • News & Views |

    Nutrient transport is regulated by signaling pathways that together indicate metabolic checkpoints in T cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation.

    • Won Ho Yang
    •  & Jamey D Marth
  • News & Views |

    The transcription factors Tcf1 and Lef1 have intrinsic histone-deacetylase activity that is required for the repression of CD4+ T cell–lineage genes in CD8+ T cells.

    • Charles P Ng
    •  & Dan R Littman

Research Highlights

Review

  • Review Article |

    Whole-body metabolism can affect immune-cell function and vice versa. Turka and colleagues review the unique metabolic properties of Treg cells and how this relates to their function and the outcome of immune responses.

    • Ryan Newton
    • , Bhavana Priyadharshini
    •  & Laurence A Turka

Articles

  • Article |

    Group 1 and 3 innate lymphoid cells can be functionally plastic. Humbles and colleagues find that group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the lungs also exhibit phenotypic plasticity after exposure to infectious or noxious agents.

    • Jonathan S Silver
    • , Jennifer Kearley
    • , Alan M Copenhaver
    • , Caroline Sanden
    • , Michiko Mori
    • , Li Yu
    • , Gretchen Harms Pritchard
    • , Aaron A Berlin
    • , Christopher A Hunter
    • , Russell Bowler
    • , Jonas S Erjefalt
    • , Roland Kolbeck
    •  & Alison A Humbles
  • Article |

    Transdifferentiation between group 1 and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been observed in the gut. Spits and colleagues now show lung ILC2s are able to convert into ILC1s in an IL-12-dependent manner.

    • Suzanne M Bal
    • , Jochem H Bernink
    • , Maho Nagasawa
    • , Jelle Groot
    • , Medya M Shikhagaie
    • , Kornel Golebski
    • , Cornelis M van Drunen
    • , Rene Lutter
    • , Rene E Jonkers
    • , Pleun Hombrink
    • , Melanie Bruchard
    • , Julien Villaudy
    • , J Marius Munneke
    • , Wytske Fokkens
    • , Jonas S Erjefält
    • , Hergen Spits
    •  & Xavier Romero Ros
  • Article |

    Cytokines of the IL-1 family have a range of effects on innate lymphoid cells. Liu and colleagues find that IL-1 facilitates the maturation and plasticity of group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    • Yoichiro Ohne
    • , Jonathan S Silver
    • , LuAnn Thompson-Snipes
    • , Magalie A Collet
    • , Jean Philippe Blanck
    • , Brandi L Cantarel
    • , Alan M Copenhaver
    • , Alison A Humbles
    •  & Yong-Jun Liu
  • Article |

    The cell-intrinsic pathways controlling the function of innate lymphoid cells are poorly defined. Artis and colleagues demonstrate that ILC2s selectively express arginase 1 and that this is critical for their bioenergetics, proliferation and function.

    • Laurel A Monticelli
    • , Michael D Buck
    • , Anne-Laure Flamar
    • , Steven A Saenz
    • , Elia D Tait Wojno
    • , Naomi A Yudanin
    • , Lisa C Osborne
    • , Matthew R Hepworth
    • , Sara V Tran
    • , Hans-Reimer Rodewald
    • , Hardik Shah
    • , Justin R Cross
    • , Joshua M Diamond
    • , Edward Cantu
    • , Jason D Christie
    • , Erika L Pearce
    •  & David Artis
  • Article |

    Using single-cell transcriptome profiling of pre-granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells, Nerlov and colleagues identify an early hematopoietic lineage bifurcation that segregates mast cells, eosinophils, megakaryocytes and erythroid cells from monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes.

    • Roy Drissen
    • , Natalija Buza-Vidas
    • , Petter Woll
    • , Supat Thongjuea
    • , Adriana Gambardella
    • , Alice Giustacchini
    • , Elena Mancini
    • , Alya Zriwil
    • , Michael Lutteropp
    • , Amit Grover
    • , Adam Mead
    • , Ewa Sitnicka
    • , Sten Eirik W Jacobsen
    •  & Claus Nerlov
  • Article |

    Moore and colleagues show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces miR-33 and miR-33* in macrophages to inhibit integrated pathways involved in autophagy, lysosomal function and fatty acid oxidation, and to support bacterial replication.

    • Mireille Ouimet
    • , Stefan Koster
    • , Erik Sakowski
    • , Bhama Ramkhelawon
    • , Coen van Solingen
    • , Scott Oldebeken
    • , Denuja Karunakaran
    • , Cynthia Portal-Celhay
    • , Frederick J Sheedy
    • , Tathagat Dutta Ray
    • , Katharine Cecchini
    • , Philip D Zamore
    • , Katey J Rayner
    • , Yves L Marcel
    • , Jennifer A Philips
    •  & Kathryn J Moore
  • Article |

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has well-described roles in the differentiation of T cells; however, less is known about its function in innate immunity. Takaoka and colleagues demonstrate how an AHR-dependent pathway reins in production of type I interferon.

    • Taisho Yamada
    • , Hiromasa Horimoto
    • , Takeshi Kameyama
    • , Sumio Hayakawa
    • , Hiroaki Yamato
    • , Masayoshi Dazai
    • , Ayato Takada
    • , Hiroshi Kida
    • , Debbie Bott
    • , Angela C Zhou
    • , David Hutin
    • , Tania H Watts
    • , Masahiro Asaka
    • , Jason Matthews
    •  & Akinori Takaoka
  • Article |

    Xue and colleagues show that the transcription factors Tcf1 and Lef1 suppress CD4+ T lineage genes in CD8+ T cells through intrinsic histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity.

    • Shaojun Xing
    • , Fengyin Li
    • , Zhouhao Zeng
    • , Yunjie Zhao
    • , Shuyang Yu
    • , Qiang Shan
    • , Yalan Li
    • , Farrah C Phillips
    • , Peterson K Maina
    • , Hank H Qi
    • , Chengyu Liu
    • , Jun Zhu
    • , R Marshall Pope
    • , Catherine A Musselman
    • , Chen Zeng
    • , Weiqun Peng
    •  & Hai-Hui Xue
  • Article |

    Asymmetric division can generate effector and memory CD8+ T cell precursors. Powell and colleagues show asymmetric partitioning of mTORC1 activity upon CD8+ T cell division, which results in distinct metabolic programming of daughter T cells.

    • Kristen N Pollizzi
    • , Im-Hong Sun
    • , Chirag H Patel
    • , Ying-Chun Lo
    • , Min-Hee Oh
    • , Adam T Waickman
    • , Ada J Tam
    • , Richard L Blosser
    • , Jiayu Wen
    • , Greg M Delgoffe
    •  & Jonathan D Powell
  • Article |

    Intracellular proteins are regulated by multiple post-translation modifications. Cantrell and colleagues show that nutrient flux regulates intracellular protein modification by O-GlcNAcylation, which drives thymocyte development and T cell proliferation.

    • Mahima Swamy
    • , Shalini Pathak
    • , Katarzyna M Grzes
    • , Sebastian Damerow
    • , Linda V Sinclair
    • , Daan M F van Aalten
    •  & Doreen A Cantrell
  • Article |

    The thymus produces γδ T cell subsets making either IFN-γ or IL-17. Silva-Santos and colleagues show that TCR signal strength within specific developmental windows is a major determinant of the generation of these γδ T cell subsets.

    • Miguel Muñoz-Ruiz
    • , Julie C Ribot
    • , Ana R Grosso
    • , Natacha Gonçalves-Sousa
    • , Ana Pamplona
    • , Daniel J Pennington
    • , José R Regueiro
    • , Edgar Fernández-Malavé
    •  & Bruno Silva-Santos

Resource

  • Resource |

    Invariant natural killer T cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules and are capable of copious cytokine production. Kronenberg and colleagues show that distinct transcriptional and epigenetic profiles can be ascribed to the NKT1, NKT2 and NKT17 subsets of these cells.

    • Isaac Engel
    • , Grégory Seumois
    • , Lukas Chavez
    • , Daniela Samaniego-Castruita
    • , Brandie White
    • , Ashu Chawla
    • , Dennis Mock
    • , Pandurangan Vijayanand
    •  & Mitchell Kronenberg

Corrigenda