Volume 17 Issue 2, February 2016

Volume 17 Issue 2

Robbins and colleagues show that arteries are colonized by macrophages of various origins (p 159; News and Views p 117). The original image by Rickvinder Besla is a cross-section of the descending arch of the mouse aorta, stained for the chemokine CX3CL1 (red) and the adhesion molecule CD31 (yellow).Artwork by Lewis Long.

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Thymic selection shapes the repertoire of potentially autoreactive thymocytes that are allowed to mature. The expression pattern of self antigen seen by thymocytes determines the number and functional ability of autoreactive T cells.

    • Douglas G Millar
    •  & Pamela S Ohashi
  • News & Views |

    Arteries are colonized by macrophages of multiple origins, derived prenatally from the yolk sac and during an early postnatal wave from the bone marrow. During sepsis, blood monocyte-derived macrophages transiently contribute to, but do not replace, resident arterial macrophages that largely self-renew in situ.

    • Kay Klapproth
    • , Felix Lasitschka
    •  & Hans-Reimer Rodewald
  • News & Views |

    Viral infection of the mucosa induces a strong host innate immune response involving type I interferons and interferon-stimulated genes. New findings show that mechanical or pathogen-induced disruption of the mucus itself can also trigger 'hyper-early' innate responses independent of type I interferons and major sensing pathways of the innate immune system.

    • Smita Gopinath
    • , Yosuke Kumamoto
    •  & Akiko Iwasaki

Research Highlights

Review

  • Review Article |

    IL-33 has well-described roles in type 2 immune responses; however, the scope of its functions are rapidly widening. Martin and Martin review the latest knowledge on IL-33 as an alarmin, intracellular molecule and cytokine.

    • Nikolas T Martin
    •  & Michael U Martin

Perspective

Articles

  • Article |

    Sumolyation regulates wide-ranging biological processes, but its influence on innate immunity is unclear. Amigorena and colleagues show that sumoylation negatively regulates interferon-β expression and anti-viral immunity.

    • Adrien Decque
    • , Olivier Joffre
    • , Joao G Magalhaes
    • , Jack-Christophe Cossec
    • , Ronnie Blecher-Gonen
    • , Pierre Lapaquette
    • , Aymeric Silvin
    • , Nicolas Manel
    • , Pierre-Emmanuel Joubert
    • , Jacob-Sebastian Seeler
    • , Matthew L Albert
    • , Ido Amit
    • , Sebastian Amigorena
    •  & Anne Dejean
  • Article |

    Mucosal surfaces often represent the first point of entry for pathogens. Paludan and colleagues demonstrate that disruption of the mucus itself can initiate a hyperacute innate immune response that precedes even the production of type I interferons.

    • Marie B Iversen
    • , Line S Reinert
    • , Martin K Thomsen
    • , Ieva Bagdonaite
    • , Ramya Nandakumar
    • , Natalia Cheshenko
    • , Thaneas Prabakaran
    • , Sergey Y Vakhrushev
    • , Malgosha Krzyzowska
    • , Sine K Kratholm
    • , Fernando Ruiz-Perez
    • , Steen V Petersen
    • , Stanislas Goriely
    • , Bo Martin Bibby
    • , Kristina Eriksson
    • , Jürgen Ruland
    • , Allan R Thomsen
    • , Betsy C Herold
    • , Hans H Wandall
    • , Sebastian Frische
    • , Christian K Holm
    •  & Søren R Paludan
  • Article |

    Macrophages densely populate the arterial wall, yet their origin and homeostasis are poorly understood. Robbins and colleagues show that arterial macrophages arise from CX3CR1+ embryonic precursors and adult bone marrow–derived monocytes that colonize the tissue immediately after birth.

    • Sherine Ensan
    • , Angela Li
    • , Rickvinder Besla
    • , Norbert Degousee
    • , Jake Cosme
    • , Mark Roufaiel
    • , Eric A Shikatani
    • , Mahmoud El-Maklizi
    • , Jesse W Williams
    • , Lauren Robins
    • , Cedric Li
    • , Bonnie Lewis
    • , Tae Jin Yun
    • , Jun Seong Lee
    • , Peter Wieghofer
    • , Ramzi Khattar
    • , Kaveh Farrokhi
    • , John Byrne
    • , Maral Ouzounian
    • , Caleb C J Zavitz
    • , Gary A Levy
    • , Carla M T Bauer
    • , Peter Libby
    • , Mansoor Husain
    • , Filip K Swirski
    • , Cheolho Cheong
    • , Marco Prinz
    • , Ingo Hilgendorf
    • , Gwendalyn J Randolph
    • , Slava Epelman
    • , Anthony O Gramolini
    • , Myron I Cybulsky
    • , Barry B Rubin
    •  & Clinton S Robbins
  • Article |

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells have low expression of the transcription factor GATA-3. Zhu and colleagues show that despite its low expression, GATA-3 is essential for the homeostasis, further maturation and effector function of lineage-committed group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    • Chao Zhong
    • , Kairong Cui
    • , Christoph Wilhelm
    • , Gangqing Hu
    • , Kairui Mao
    • , Yasmine Belkaid
    • , Keji Zhao
    •  & Jinfang Zhu
  • Article |

    The function of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 cells) is still being determined. Vivier and colleagues describe the development of ILC3 subsets and show that NCR+ ILC3 cells are not needed to control infection with Citrobacter rodentium in the presence of an intact T cell compartment.

    • Lucille C Rankin
    • , Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux
    • , Cyril Seillet
    • , Lisa A Mielke
    • , Yann Kerdiles
    • , Aurore Fenis
    • , Elisabeth Wieduwild
    • , Tracy Putoczki
    • , Stanislas Mondot
    • , Olivier Lantz
    • , Dieter Demon
    • , Anthony T Papenfuss
    • , Gordon K Smyth
    • , Mohamed Lamkanfi
    • , Sebastian Carotta
    • , Jean-Christophe Renauld
    • , Wei Shi
    • , Sabrina Carpentier
    • , Tim Soos
    • , Christopher Arendt
    • , Sophie Ugolini
    • , Nicholas D Huntington
    • , Gabrielle T Belz
    •  & Eric Vivier
  • Article |

    CD4+ T cell tolerance can be enforced by various mechanisms. Jenkins and colleagues use mice with entirely intact polyclonal T cell repertoires to comprehensively define the mechanisms of self-tolerance.

    • Deepali Malhotra
    • , Jonathan L Linehan
    • , Thamotharampillai Dileepan
    • , You Jeong Lee
    • , Whitney E Purtha
    • , Jennifer V Lu
    • , Ryan W Nelson
    • , Brian T Fife
    • , Harry T Orr
    • , Mark S Anderson
    • , Kristin A Hogquist
    •  & Marc K Jenkins
  • Article |

    A hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus is the production of type I interferons in response to immunocomplexes containing self DNA from dead cells and DNA-specific IgG. Sanjuan and colleagues find that IgE specific for self DNA also exacerbates this disease.

    • Jill Henault
    • , Jeffrey M Riggs
    • , Jodi L Karnell
    • , Vladimir M Liarski
    • , Jianqing Li
    • , Lena Shirinian
    • , Linda Xu
    • , Kerry A Casey
    • , Michael A Smith
    • , Deepak B Khatry
    • , Liat Izhak
    • , Lorraine Clarke
    • , Ronald Herbst
    • , Rachel Ettinger
    • , Michelle Petri
    • , Marcus R Clark
    • , Tomas Mustelin
    • , Roland Kolbeck
    •  & Miguel A Sanjuan

Resource

Corrigenda

Erratum