Volume 17 Issue 11, November 2016

Volume 17 Issue 11

The contribution of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) to immunity in natural conditions is unclear. By studying circulating and tissue-resident ILCs in patients with severe combined immune deficiency, Vély and colleagues (p 1291; News and Views by Le Gros et al. p 1237) show that ILCs are dispensable for immunological protection in the context of modern medicine and hygiene. The original image by Julie Bruneau shows scattered NKp46+ ILCs (brown) in the lamina propria and T cells (red) in the epithelium of a colonic biopsy. Artwork by Lewis Long.

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    A cohort of immunodeficient children lead near-normal lives after bone marrow transplantation, despite a profound deficiency of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

    • Robert Weinkove
    • , Kara Filbey
    •  & Graham Le Gros
  • News & Views |

    By taking advantage of an MR1 tetramer to accurately detect mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in both mice and humans, researchers defined the thymic development of MAIT cells.

    • Haiguang Wang
    •  & Kristin A Hogquist
  • News & Views |

    Microglia are important facilitators of glioma proliferation and invasion. An important component of this process seems to be glioma-mediated suppression of microglial activation via S-nitrosylation of microglial caspase-3.

    • Korneel Grauwet
    •  & E Antonio Chiocca

Research Highlights

Review

  • Review Article |

    Epithelial cells of the gut are heavily glycosylated. Kiyono and colleagues review the evidence for the importance of this glycosylation to immunity, host–microbiome interactions and immunopathology.

    • Yoshiyuki Goto
    • , Satoshi Uematsu
    •  & Hiroshi Kiyono

Articles

  • Article |

    tRNA synthetases are essential to protein synthesis. Kim and colleagues identify a non-translational function for glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase during viral infection that promotes the anti-viral activity of the antiviral signaling protein MAVS.

    • Eun-Young Lee
    • , Hyun-Cheol Lee
    • , Hyun-Kwan Kim
    • , Song Yee Jang
    • , Seong-Jun Park
    • , Yong-Hoon Kim
    • , Jong Hwan Kim
    • , Jungwon Hwang
    • , Jae-Hoon Kim
    • , Tae-Hwan Kim
    • , Abul Arif
    • , Seon-Young Kim
    • , Young-Ki Choi
    • , Cheolju Lee
    • , Chul-Ho Lee
    • , Jae U Jung
    • , Paul L Fox
    • , Sunghoon Kim
    • , Jong-Soo Lee
    •  & Myung Hee Kim
  • Article |

    Cybulsky and colleagues show that myeloid cells in the arterial intima undergo reverse transendothelial migration into the arterial circulation that is dependent on the chemokine CCL19 and its receptor CCR7.

    • Mark Roufaiel
    • , Eric Gracey
    • , Allan Siu
    • , Su-Ning Zhu
    • , Andrew Lau
    • , Hisham Ibrahim
    • , Marwan Althagafi
    • , Kelly Tai
    • , Sharon J Hyduk
    • , Kateryna O Cybulsky
    • , Sherine Ensan
    • , Angela Li
    • , Rickvinder Besla
    • , Henry M Becker
    • , Haiyan Xiao
    • , Sanjiv A Luther
    • , Robert D Inman
    • , Clinton S Robbins
    • , Jenny Jongstra-Bilen
    •  & Myron I Cybulsky
  • Article |

    Tumor cells commonly express abnormally glycosylated glycoproteins such as MUC1. Burchell and colleagues show that tumor-specific MUC1-ST interacts with the lectin Siglec-9 on myeloid cells and induces their conversion into suppressive tumor-associated macrophages.

    • Richard Beatson
    • , Virginia Tajadura-Ortega
    • , Daniela Achkova
    • , Gianfranco Picco
    • , Theodora-Dorita Tsourouktsoglou
    • , Sandra Klausing
    • , Matthew Hillier
    • , John Maher
    • , Thomas Noll
    • , Paul R Crocker
    • , Joyce Taylor-Papadimitriou
    •  & Joy M Burchell
  • Article |

    Gliomas recruit and manipulate microglial function to promote their growth. Joseph and colleagues reveal the molecular basis of this manipulation by showing that gliomas trigger S-nitrosylation of microglial caspase-3 and thereby initiate a tumor-promoting phenotype.

    • Xianli Shen
    • , Miguel A Burguillos
    • , Ahmed M Osman
    • , Jeroen Frijhoff
    • , Alejandro Carrillo-Jiménez
    • , Sachie Kanatani
    • , Martin Augsten
    • , Dalel Saidi
    • , Johanna Rodhe
    • , Edel Kavanagh
    • , Anthony Rongvaux
    • , Vilma Rraklli
    • , Ulrika Nyman
    • , Johan Holmberg
    • , Arne Östman
    • , Richard A Flavell
    • , Antonio Barragan
    • , Jose Luis Venero
    • , Klas Blomgren
    •  & Bertrand Joseph
  • Article |

    The importance of human innate lymphoid cells to normal human physiology is unclear. Vivier and colleagues find that immunodeficient patients ‘rescued’ with normal bone marrow can recover their T cells but not their innate lymphoid cells, yet remain entirely asymptomatic for nearly 40 years.

    • Frédéric Vély
    • , Vincent Barlogis
    • , Blandine Vallentin
    • , Bénédicte Neven
    • , Christelle Piperoglou
    • , Mikael Ebbo
    • , Thibaut Perchet
    • , Maxime Petit
    • , Nadia Yessaad
    • , Fabien Touzot
    • , Julie Bruneau
    • , Nizar Mahlaoui
    • , Nicolas Zucchini
    • , Catherine Farnarier
    • , Gérard Michel
    • , Despina Moshous
    • , Stéphane Blanche
    • , Arnaud Dujardin
    • , Hergen Spits
    • , Jörg H W Distler
    • , Andreas Ramming
    • , Capucine Picard
    • , Rachel Golub
    • , Alain Fischer
    •  & Eric Vivier
  • Article |

    Godfrey, Pellicci and colleagues define the developmental stages and checkpoints for the development of mucosal-associated invariant T cells in humans and mice.

    • Hui-Fern Koay
    • , Nicholas A Gherardin
    • , Anselm Enders
    • , Liyen Loh
    • , Laura K Mackay
    • , Catarina F Almeida
    • , Brendan E Russ
    • , Claudia A Nold-Petry
    • , Marcel F Nold
    • , Sammy Bedoui
    • , Zhenjun Chen
    • , Alexandra J Corbett
    • , Sidonia B G Eckle
    • , Bronwyn Meehan
    • , Yves d'Udekem
    • , Igor E Konstantinov
    • , Martha Lappas
    • , Ligong Liu
    • , Chris C Goodnow
    • , David P Fairlie
    • , Jamie Rossjohn
    • , Mark M Chong
    • , Katherine Kedzierska
    • , Stuart P Berzins
    • , Gabrielle T Belz
    • , James McCluskey
    • , Adam P Uldrich
    • , Dale I Godfrey
    •  & Daniel G Pellicci
  • Article |

    The longevity of hematopoietic stem cells requires strict regulation to prevent their exhaustion. Aifantis and colleagues show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase Huwe1 is needed to suppress the activity of the transcription factor N-myc and maintain the quiescence and function of these cells.

    • Bryan King
    • , Francesco Boccalatte
    • , Kelly Moran-Crusio
    • , Elmar Wolf
    • , Jingjing Wang
    • , Clarisse Kayembe
    • , Charalampos Lazaris
    • , Xiaofeng Yu
    • , Beatriz Aranda-Orgilles
    • , Anna Lasorella
    •  & Iannis Aifantis
  • Article |

    The cytokine receptor IL-2R is essential for the development of Treg cells; therefore, it has been difficult to separate this from its role in the suppressive function of Treg cells. Rudensky and colleagues use various genetic systems to show that capture of IL-2 by IL-2R is important for suppression of CD8+ T cells but not that of CD4+ T cells.

    • Takatoshi Chinen
    • , Arun K Kannan
    • , Andrew G Levine
    • , Xiying Fan
    • , Ulf Klein
    • , Ye Zheng
    • , Georg Gasteiger
    • , Yongqiang Feng
    • , Jason D Fontenot
    •  & Alexander Y Rudensky