Volume 17 Issue 10, October 2016

Volume 17 Issue 10

The immune system needs to tailor its responses according to the threat level. Lemaitre and colleagues (p 1150; News and Views by Tomé-Poderti and Saleh, p 1138) identify a novel version of the peptidoglycan receptor PGRP-LC in flies and demonstrate that this 'tunes' immune responses according to challenge with live (threatening) bacteria or dead (harmless) bacteria. The original image by Claudine Neyenis shows a section through fat-body cells expressing a mutant form of the receptor (green). Artwork by Lewis Long.

Meeting Report

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    CD1a on Langerhans cells in the epidermis is the lipid receptor for the plant-derived allergen urushiol and self lipids and is a key amplifier of inflammatory responses in urushiol-induced contact dermatitis as well as in psoriasis.

    • Masayuki Amagai
  • News & Views |

    Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) sequentially acquire the potential to secrete interleukin 21 (IL-21) and IL-4. The shift from secretion of IL-21 to that of IL-4 modifies the nature of the 'help' signals delivered by TFH cells to germinal center (GC) B cells.

    • Simon Bélanger
    •  & Shane Crotty
  • News & Views |

    New findings show that the NLRP3 inflammasome is inactivated by disassembly of the inflammasome mediated by the kinase PKA and that this regulation might be negated in NLRP3-gain-of-function diseases.

    • Karen V Swanson
    •  & Jenny P-Y Ting
  • News & Views |

    The Drosophila immune system distinguishes live, and potentially harmful, bacteria from harmless dead bacteria through the use of a splice variant of the receptor PGRP-LC.

    • Lorena Tomé-Poderti
    •  & Maria-Carla Saleh

Research Highlights

Review

Articles

  • Article |

    Human Langerhans cells express CD1a, but those in mice do not, which makes determination of its function on these cells challenging in vivo. Through the use of a transgenic mouse that expresses CD1a, Winau and colleagues demonstrate that Langerhans cells use CD1a to present contact allergens and self lipid antigens and thereby worsen inflammatory skin conditions.

    • Ji Hyung Kim
    • , Yu Hu
    • , Tang Yongqing
    • , Jessica Kim
    • , Victoria A Hughes
    • , Jérôme Le Nours
    • , Elsa A Marquez
    • , Anthony W Purcell
    • , Qi Wan
    • , Masahiko Sugita
    • , Jamie Rossjohn
    •  & Florian Winau
  • Article |

    CD8α+ DCs are specialized at cross-presentation, but the mechanisms that bestow this ability have not been fully characterized. Cao and colleagues show that the lectin Siglec-G negatively regulates cross-presentation and that its expression is lower in CD8α+ DCs.

    • Yuanyuan Ding
    • , Zhenhong Guo
    • , Yiqi Liu
    • , Xia Li
    • , Qian Zhang
    • , Xiongfei Xu
    • , Yan Gu
    • , Yi Zhang
    • , Dezhi Zhao
    •  & Xuetao Cao
  • Article |

    Dysregulated inflammasome activation is associated with auto-inflammatory diseases. Chadee and colleagues show that prostaglandin E2 triggers rapid inhibition of the inflammasome component NLRP3 by the kinase PKA. Patients with the inflammatory disease CAPS who have mutations in NLPR3 escape this negative regulation.

    • Leanne Mortimer
    • , France Moreau
    • , Justin A MacDonald
    •  & Kris Chadee
  • Article |

    B cells and follicular helper T cells in B cell follicles can act as important reservoirs for chronic infection by viruses such as HIV or EBV. Yu and colleagues show that a specialized subpopulation of cytotoxic T cells can enter the B cell follicles to eliminate such virus-infected cells.

    • Yew Ann Leong
    • , Yaping Chen
    • , Hong Sheng Ong
    • , Di Wu
    • , Kevin Man
    • , Claire Deleage
    • , Martina Minnich
    • , Benjamin J Meckiff
    • , Yunbo Wei
    • , Zhaohua Hou
    • , Dimitra Zotos
    • , Kevin A Fenix
    • , Anurag Atnerkar
    • , Simon Preston
    • , Jeffrey G Chipman
    • , Greg J Beilman
    • , Cody C Allison
    • , Lei Sun
    • , Peng Wang
    • , Jiawei Xu
    • , Jesse G Toe
    • , Hao K Lu
    • , Yong Tao
    • , Umaimainthan Palendira
    • , Alexander L Dent
    • , Alan L Landay
    • , Marc Pellegrini
    • , Iain Comerford
    • , Shaun R McColl
    • , Timothy W Schacker
    • , Heather M Long
    • , Jacob D Estes
    • , Meinrad Busslinger
    • , Gabrielle T Belz
    • , Sharon R Lewin
    • , Axel Kallies
    •  & Di Yu
  • Article |

    Craft and colleagues show that follicular helper T cells progress through transcriptionally and functionally distinct stages that provide specific signals for germinal center regulation.

    • Jason S Weinstein
    • , Edward I Herman
    • , Begoña Lainez
    • , Paula Licona-Limón
    • , Enric Esplugues
    • , Richard Flavell
    •  & Joe Craft

Resources

  • Resource |

    Holländer and colleagues provide a map of genes that are direct targets of the transcription factor Foxn1 in thymic epithelial cells and show that Foxn1 controls genes encoding products involved in thymocyte development, antigen processing and thymocyte selection.

    • Saulius Žuklys
    • , Adam Handel
    • , Saule Zhanybekova
    • , Fatima Govani
    • , Marcel Keller
    • , Stefano Maio
    • , Carlos E Mayer
    • , Hong Ying Teh
    • , Katrin Hafen
    • , Giuseppe Gallone
    • , Thomas Barthlott
    • , Chris P Ponting
    •  & Georg A Holländer
  • Resource |

    Immunologic memory promotes faster and more-efficient responses after re-exposure to pathogens. Ahmed and colleagues characterize a subset of human B cells that arise after vaccination against or exposure to influenza or Ebola virus and contribute to the memory cell pool.

    • Ali H Ellebedy
    • , Katherine J L Jackson
    • , Haydn T Kissick
    • , Helder I Nakaya
    • , Carl W Davis
    • , Krishna M Roskin
    • , Anita K McElroy
    • , Christine M Oshansky
    • , Rivka Elbein
    • , Shine Thomas
    • , George M Lyon
    • , Christina F Spiropoulou
    • , Aneesh K Mehta
    • , Paul G Thomas
    • , Scott D Boyd
    •  & Rafi Ahmed

Corrigenda

Errata