Volume 15 Issue 8, August 2014

Volume 15 Issue 8

Cells of the immune system release cytokine 'factories' in the form of bioactive extracellular inflammasome assemblies. New findings by Franklin et al. and Baroja-Mazo et al. (pp 727 and 738; and News and Views by Broderick & Hoffman, p 698) identify extracellular functions of inflammasomes that are important for autoimmunity and the defense against pathogens. The original image shows the recruitment of neutrophils to injected extracellular specks of the adaptor ASC, which demonstrates their function as danger signals. Original image by Jacqueline M. Ratter. Artwork by Lewis Long.

Commentary

  • Commentary |

    It is not enough to be a good scientist. One needs to be a good communicator. When publications are clear and a pleasure to read, they will advance both the field and the authors' reputation.

    • James C Gould
    • , Rafael E Luna
    •  & Donna L Vogel

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Inflammasome-driven inflammation extends into the extracellular space and to neighboring cells through the passive release of specks consisting of the adaptor ASC; this perpetuates the innate immune response and adds a dimension beyond interleukin 1 to autoinflammation.

    • Lori Broderick
    •  & Hal M Hoffman
  • News & Views |

    Infection with an RNA virus induces the interferons IFN-β and IFN-λ via the adaptor MAVS located in mitochondria, while peroxisomal MAVS selectively activates an IFN-λ response.

    • Siyuan Ding
    •  & Michael D Robek
  • News & Views |

    The chromatin signature of genomic enhancers in CD4+ T cells distinguishes asthmatic patients from healthy subjects.

    • Golnaz Vahedi
    • , Arianne C Richard
    •  & John J O'Shea
  • News & Views |

    Cells of the TH9 subset of helper T cells differentiated in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) produce large amounts of IL-9 and IL-21 in a manner dependent on the transcription factors STAT1 and IRF1 and exhibit potent anticancer effects.

    • Sergio A Quezada
    •  & Karl S Peggs

Research Highlights

Review

Articles

  • Article |

    Type III interferons have important antiviral functions, but they are poorly described compared to type I interferons. Kagan and colleagues demonstrate that type III interferons are induced on peroxisomes in response to a variety of viral triggers.

    • Charlotte Odendall
    • , Evelyn Dixit
    • , Fabrizia Stavru
    • , Helene Bierne
    • , Kate M Franz
    • , Ann Fiegen Durbin
    • , Steeve Boulant
    • , Lee Gehrke
    • , Pascale Cossart
    •  & Jonathan C Kagan
  • Article |

    Various endogenous and pathogen-derived stimuli trigger the assembly of cytosolic multimolecular 'speck' platforms coordinated by the adapter ASC. Latz and colleagues demonstrate that ASC specks have extracellular functions that can prolong inflammation.

    • Bernardo S Franklin
    • , Lukas Bossaller
    • , Dominic De Nardo
    • , Jacqueline M Ratter
    • , Andrea Stutz
    • , Gudrun Engels
    • , Christoph Brenker
    • , Mark Nordhoff
    • , Sandra R Mirandola
    • , Ashraf Al-Amoudi
    • , Matthew S Mangan
    • , Sebastian Zimmer
    • , Brian G Monks
    • , Martin Fricke
    • , Reinhold E Schmidt
    • , Terje Espevik
    • , Bernadette Jones
    • , Andrew G Jarnicki
    • , Philip M Hansbro
    • , Patricia Busto
    • , Ann Marshak-Rothstein
    • , Simone Hornemann
    • , Adriano Aguzzi
    • , Wolfgang Kastenmüller
    •  & Eicke Latz
  • Article |

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in IL-1 production and pyroptosis. Pelegrín et al. demonstrate that it is also released extracellularly as a functional proinflammatory particle.

    • Alberto Baroja-Mazo
    • , Fatima Martín-Sánchez
    • , Ana I Gomez
    • , Carlos M Martínez
    • , Joaquín Amores-Iniesta
    • , Vincent Compan
    • , Maria Barberà-Cremades
    • , Jordi Yagüe
    • , Estibaliz Ruiz-Ortiz
    • , Jordi Antón
    • , Segundo Buján
    • , Isabelle Couillin
    • , David Brough
    • , Juan I Arostegui
    •  & Pablo Pelegrín
  • Article |

    The kinase mTOR is important in lymphocyte bioenergetics but has not been examined in natural killer cells. Walzer and colleagues demonstrate that mTOR is key to sustaining the proliferation and effector function of these cells.

    • Antoine Marçais
    • , Julien Cherfils-Vicini
    • , Charlotte Viant
    • , Sophie Degouve
    • , Sébastien Viel
    • , Aurore Fenis
    • , Jessica Rabilloud
    • , Katia Mayol
    • , Armelle Tavares
    • , Jacques Bienvenu
    • , Yann-Gaël Gangloff
    • , Eric Gilson
    • , Eric Vivier
    •  & Thierry Walzer
  • Article |

    TH9 cells are associated with autoinflammatory diseases. Apetoh and colleagues demonstrate a molecular pathway which converts TH9 cells into potent anticancer cells.

    • Frédérique Végran
    • , Hélène Berger
    • , Romain Boidot
    • , Grégoire Mignot
    • , Mélanie Bruchard
    • , Magalie Dosset
    • , Fanny Chalmin
    • , Cédric Rébé
    • , Valentin Dérangère
    • , Bernhard Ryffel
    • , Masashi Kato
    • , Armelle Prévost-Blondel
    • , François Ghiringhelli
    •  & Lionel Apetoh
  • Article |

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are needed to suppress autoreactive immune cell responses. Murre and colleagues show the transcriptional regulators Id2 and Id3 are necessary for proper Treg cell development, homing and maintenance.

    • Masaki Miyazaki
    • , Kazuko Miyazaki
    • , Shuwen Chen
    • , Manami Itoi
    • , Marina Miller
    • , Li-Fan Lu
    • , Nissi Varki
    • , Aaron N Chang
    • , David H Broide
    •  & Cornelis Murre

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