Volume 15 Issue 6, June 2014

Volume 15 Issue 6

Post-transcriptional and posttranslational modifications have profound influences on all aspects of immunity. Much like a blacksmith hammering a piece of metal into something functional, phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation can also alter NF-κB's function. This month's Focus features five specially commissioned Reviews that discuss the role of such modifications in various aspects of the immune system ranging from development to activation to immunopathology. www.nature.com/focus/ptm.Artwork by Lewis Long.

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications exert subtle yet profound influences on all aspects of immunity.

Reviews

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that exhibit many features of adaptive immunity, such as long-lived memory. This can now be extended to the transcriptional circuits that control the proliferation of NK cells and lymphocytes.

    • Thomas Ciucci
    •  & Rémy Bosselut
  • News & Views |

    The colonization of the colon with commensal microflora drives the induction and population expansion of regulatory T cells, an immunological adaption needed to prevent mucosal inflammation. The epigenetic modifier Uhrf1 acts as a key molecular mediator of such expansion and the establishment of a harmonious mucosal environment.

    • Daniel H D Gray
    •  & Adrian Liston
  • News & Views |

    The DNA-damage sensor Rad50 couples the sensing of cytosolic DNA to the innate immunological adaptor CARD9 to stimulate DNA-dependent activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. This facilitates DNA virus–stimulated production of the cytokine IL-1β.

    • Andrew G Bowie

Articles

  • Article |

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the cytoplasm triggers IL-1β production as an antiviral response. Ruland and colleagues describe the formation of dsDNA-Rad50-CARD9 signaling complexes for NF-κB activation and the generation of pro-IL-1β after infection with a DNA virus.

    • Susanne Roth
    • , Andrea Rottach
    • , Amelie S Lotz-Havla
    • , Verena Laux
    • , Andreas Muschaweckh
    • , Søren W Gersting
    • , Ania C Muntau
    • , Karl-Peter Hopfner
    • , Lei Jin
    • , Katelynd Vanness
    • , John H J Petrini
    • , Ingo Drexler
    • , Heinrich Leonhardt
    •  & Jürgen Ruland
  • Article |

    Sun and colleagues show that the deubiquitinase USP15 stabilizes expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 in T cells, which results in inhibition of T cell activation, and in cancer cells, which results in survival of cancer cells.

    • Qiang Zou
    • , Jin Jin
    • , Hongbo Hu
    • , Haiyan S Li
    • , Simona Romano
    • , Yichuan Xiao
    • , Mako Nakaya
    • , Xiaofei Zhou
    • , Xuhong Cheng
    • , Peirong Yang
    • , Guillermina Lozano
    • , Chengming Zhu
    • , Stephanie S Watowich
    • , Stephen E Ullrich
    •  & Shao-Cong Sun
  • Article |

    Regulatory T cells proliferate robustly in gut lymphoid tissues. Hase et al. show that this proliferation requires their expression of the epigenetic regulator Uhrf1, which is increased in response to IL-2 produced by effector T cells.

    • Yuuki Obata
    • , Yukihiro Furusawa
    • , Takaho A Endo
    • , Jafar Sharif
    • , Daisuke Takahashi
    • , Koji Atarashi
    • , Manabu Nakayama
    • , Satoshi Onawa
    • , Yumiko Fujimura
    • , Masumi Takahashi
    • , Tomokatsu Ikawa
    • , Takeshi Otsubo
    • , Yuki I Kawamura
    • , Taeko Dohi
    • , Shoji Tajima
    • , Hiroshi Masumoto
    • , Osamu Ohara
    • , Kenya Honda
    • , Shohei Hori
    • , Hiroshi Ohno
    • , Haruhiko Koseki
    •  & Koji Hase

Resource

Focus

  • Focus |

    Post-Transcriptional and Post-Translational Control of Immunity

    A series of Reviews specially commissioned by Nature Immunologydiscuss post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications in the immune system. The Focus covers the role of such modifications in various aspects of the immune system ranging from development to activation to immunopathology.