Volume 15 Issue 2, February 2014

Volume 15 Issue 2

More detailed and comprehensive analysis of the immune system will reveal basic and translational insights and may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies. This month's joint Focus features articles that discuss the new technologies and computational approaches that enable this sort of high-dimensional characterization of components of the immune system. www.nature.com/focus/high_dimensional_immune_analysisArtwork by Lewis Long.

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Emerging technologies are broadening our understanding of the human immune system, but capitalizing on their application will likely require philosophical and practical changes to the way research is done.

Commentary

  • Commentary |

    Proteomics based on high-resolution mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for the analysis of protein abundance, modifications and interactions. Here we describe technical aspects of proteomics workflows, instrumentation as well as computational considerations to obtain high-quality proteomics data.

    • Felix Meissner
    •  & Matthias Mann

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Love and colleagues review the limitations of bulk measurements for monitoring the immune system and explore advances in single-cell technologies that overcome these problems.

    • Pratip K Chattopadhyay
    • , Todd M Gierahn
    • , Mario Roederer
    •  & J Christopher Love

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Acute inhibition of the regulatory kinase Csk reveals additional checkpoints for full activation of thymocytes via the T cell antigen receptor.

    • Michael L Dustin
    •  & Simon J Davis
  • News & Views |

    In addition to its canonical role in reverse cholesterol transport, high-density lipoprotein can suppress inflammation in target cells through the induction of Atf3, which encodes a well-known transcriptional repressor.

    • Justin I Odegaard
    •  & Ajay Chawla

Research Highlights

Articles

  • Article |

    IL-17 production by neutrophils has been reported in human psoriasis. Pearlman and colleagues identify a population of neutrophils that constitutively express the transcription factor RORγt and can produce and respond to IL-17A.

    • Patricia R Taylor
    • , Sanhita Roy
    • , Sixto M Leal Jr
    • , Yan Sun
    • , Scott J Howell
    • , Brian A Cobb
    • , Xiaoxia Li
    •  & Eric Pearlman
  • Article |

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has beneficial effects in coronary artery disease. Latz and colleagues show that HDL's benefits stem at least in part by activating an anti-inflammatory program dependent on the transcription factor ATF3.

    • Dominic De Nardo
    • , Larisa I Labzin
    • , Hajime Kono
    • , Reiko Seki
    • , Susanne V Schmidt
    • , Marc Beyer
    • , Dakang Xu
    • , Sebastian Zimmer
    • , Catharina Lahrmann
    • , Frank A Schildberg
    • , Johanna Vogelhuber
    • , Michael Kraut
    • , Thomas Ulas
    • , Anja Kerksiek
    • , Wolfgang Krebs
    • , Niklas Bode
    • , Alena Grebe
    • , Michael L Fitzgerald
    • , Nicholas J Hernandez
    • , Bryan R G Williams
    • , Percy Knolle
    • , Manfred Kneilling
    • , Martin Röcken
    • , Dieter Lütjohann
    • , Samuel D Wright
    • , Joachim L Schultze
    •  & Eicke Latz
  • Article |

    Dendritic cell (DC) subsets show functional specialization. Singh and colleagues demonstrate that the transcription factor IRF4 enhances antigen presentation by MHC class II in CD11b+ DCs to promote the priming of CD4+ effector T cells.

    • Bryan Vander Lugt
    • , Aly A Khan
    • , Jason A Hackney
    • , Smita Agrawal
    • , Justin Lesch
    • , Meijuan Zhou
    • , Wyne P Lee
    • , Summer Park
    • , Min Xu
    • , Jason DeVoss
    • , Chauncey J Spooner
    • , Cecile Chalouni
    • , Lelia Delamarre
    • , Ira Mellman
    •  & Harinder Singh
  • Article |

    Transcriptional complexes can polymerize and bind adjacent binding sites. Vinkemeier and colleagues show that STAT1 cooperativity is required downstream of type 2 interferonsignaling but not for type 1 interferon–induced immune responses.

    • Andreas Begitt
    • , Mathias Droescher
    • , Thomas Meyer
    • , Christoph D Schmid
    • , Michelle Baker
    • , Filipa Antunes
    • , Klaus-Peter Knobeloch
    • , Markus R Owen
    • , Ronald Naumann
    • , Thomas Decker
    •  & Uwe Vinkemeier
  • Article |

    CD1a-autoreactive T cells are common in human skin, but their natural antigens have remained unknown. De Jong and colleagues show that apolar oils that naturally accumulate in epidermis and sebum nest within CD1a and are activatory.

    • Annemieke de Jong
    • , Tan-Yun Cheng
    • , Shouxiong Huang
    • , Stephanie Gras
    • , Richard W Birkinshaw
    • , Anne G Kasmar
    • , Ildiko Van Rhijn
    • , Victor Peña-Cruz
    • , Daniel T Ruan
    • , John D Altman
    • , Jamie Rossjohn
    •  & D Branch Moody

Resource

  • Resource |

    Pulendran and colleagues use a systems biology analysis to reveal distinct transcriptional signatures of antibody responses to different classes of human vaccines.

    • Shuzhao Li
    • , Nadine Rouphael
    • , Sai Duraisingham
    • , Sandra Romero-Steiner
    • , Scott Presnell
    • , Carl Davis
    • , Daniel S Schmidt
    • , Scott E Johnson
    • , Andrea Milton
    • , Gowrisankar Rajam
    • , Sudhir Kasturi
    • , George M Carlone
    • , Charlie Quinn
    • , Damien Chaussabel
    • , A Karolina Palucka
    • , Mark J Mulligan
    • , Rafi Ahmed
    • , David S Stephens
    • , Helder I Nakaya
    •  & Bali Pulendran

Corrigenda

Errata