Volume 15 Issue 11, November 2014

Volume 15 Issue 11

Cells of the immune system tailor their responses to microbe size. Branzk et al. demonstrate that neutrophils sense microbe size and selectively release neutrophil extracellular traps to control large pathogens (p 1017; News and Views by Mathew L. Wheeler and David M. Underhill, p 1000). The original image shows neutrophils responding to large fungal filaments (red) by releasing such traps that contain the antimicrobial protein myeloperoxidase (green) and decondensed DNA (blue). Image by Nora Branzk and Venizelos Papayannopoulos. Artwork by Lewis Long.

Commentary

  • Commentary |

    A workshop organized by the Society for Leukocyte Biology offers advice to graduate students on how to navigate educational and professional waters to find success in academia.

    • Michael M Chen
    • , Anita Zahs
    • , Sulie L Chang
    •  & Elizabeth J Kovacs

    Collection:

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Neutrophils sense the size of microbial targets and respond via 'NETosis' when targets are too big to internalize and contain via phagocytosis.

    • Matthew L Wheeler
    •  & David M Underhill
  • News & Views |

    Acute ablation of T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) in regulatory T cells (Treg cells) impairs the suppressive activity of these cells, even though they retain expression of Foxp3 and CD25. TCR signaling imparts a critical role in the suppressive function of Treg cells.

    • Jinfang Zhu
    •  & Ethan M Shevach
  • News & Views |

    Clusters of dermal dendritic cells and T cells are required for efficient activation of T cells in skin following hapten sensitization via a process dependent on interleukin 1α (IL-1α) and the chemokine CXCL2 produced by macrophages.

    • Scott N Mueller
  • News & Views |

    Alveolar macrophages derive from fetal monocytes that seed the lungs during late embryogenesis. The cytokine GM-CSF expressed in the developing lungs induces expression of the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ, which in turn 'instructs' the differentiation of alveolar macrophage.

    • Florent Ginhoux

Research Highlights

Review

Articles

  • Article |

    How neutrophils clear hyphae and other pathogens that are too large to be ingested by phagocytosis has remained unknown. Papayannopoulos et al. show that neutrophils sense microbe size and selectively release neutrophil extracellular traps in response to large pathogens.

    • Nora Branzk
    • , Aleksandra Lubojemska
    • , Sarah E Hardison
    • , Qian Wang
    • , Maximiliano G Gutierrez
    • , Gordon D Brown
    •  & Venizelos Papayannopoulos
  • Article |

    Details of the ontogeny of alveolar macrophages remain unclear. Kopf and colleagues show that fetal monocytes give rise to alveolar macrophages in a manner dependent on the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ and the cytokine GM-CSF.

    • Christoph Schneider
    • , Samuel P Nobs
    • , Michael Kurrer
    • , Hubert Rehrauer
    • , Christoph Thiele
    •  & Manfred Kopf
  • Article |

    Thymocytes are positively selected upon recognition of self peptide–MHC complexes. Demetriou and colleagues show that N-glycosylation of TCR and coreceptor molecules increases the number of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes that are positively selected.

    • Raymond W Zhou
    • , Haik Mkhikian
    • , Ani Grigorian
    • , Amanda Hong
    • , David Chen
    • , Araz Arakelyan
    •  & Michael Demetriou
  • Article |

    Chaperone-mediated autophagy selectively targets single cytoplasmic proteins for degradation. Macian and colleagues show that such autophagy is induced by engagement of the TCR to target negative regulators of T cell activation.

    • Rut Valdor
    • , Enric Mocholi
    • , Yair Botbol
    • , Ignacio Guerrero-Ros
    • , Dinesh Chandra
    • , Hiroshi Koga
    • , Claudia Gravekamp
    • , Ana Maria Cuervo
    •  & Fernando Macian
  • Article |

    The membrane channel TRPV1 is well studied as a pain receptor, but its function beyond sensory neurons remains unclear. Raz and colleagues demonstrate that TRPV1 is also a non–store-operated calcium channel on CD4+ T cells with an important function in cell activation.

    • Samuel Bertin
    • , Yukari Aoki-Nonaka
    • , Petrus Rudolf de Jong
    • , Lilian L Nohara
    • , Hongjian Xu
    • , Shawna R Stanwood
    • , Sonal Srikanth
    • , Jihyung Lee
    • , Keith To
    • , Lior Abramson
    • , Timothy Yu
    • , Tiffany Han
    • , Ranim Touma
    • , Xiangli Li
    • , José M González-Navajas
    • , Scott Herdman
    • , Maripat Corr
    • , Guo Fu
    • , Hui Dong
    • , Yousang Gwack
    • , Alessandra Franco
    • , Wilfred A Jefferies
    •  & Eyal Raz
  • Article |

    How APCs encounter T cells in the periphery remains unclear. Kabashima and colleagues show that dendritic cells form macrophage-dependent clusters in dermal perivascular areas for efficient in situ proliferation and activation of T cells.

    • Yohei Natsuaki
    • , Gyohei Egawa
    • , Satoshi Nakamizo
    • , Sachiko Ono
    • , Sho Hanakawa
    • , Takaharu Okada
    • , Nobuhiro Kusuba
    • , Atsushi Otsuka
    • , Akihiko Kitoh
    • , Tetsuya Honda
    • , Saeko Nakajima
    • , Soken Tsuchiya
    • , Yukihiko Sugimoto
    • , Ken J Ishii
    • , Hiroko Tsutsui
    • , Hideo Yagita
    • , Yoichiro Iwakura
    • , Masato Kubo
    • , Lai guan Ng
    • , Takashi Hashimoto
    • , Judilyn Fuentes
    • , Emma Guttman-Yassky
    • , Yoshiki Miyachi
    •  & Kenji Kabashima
  • Article |

    Regulatory T cells help to keep adaptive immunity in check. Rudensky and colleagues show that these cells continuously require TCR signaling to maintain their cellular identity and homeostasis and to exert their suppressive ability.

    • Andrew G Levine
    • , Aaron Arvey
    • , Wei Jin
    •  & Alexander Y Rudensky
  • Article |

    Mutations in the RNA-binding protein roquin-1 are known to result in humoral autoimmunity. Heissmeyer and colleagues show that MALT1 cleavage of roquin and regnase-1 downstream of TCR signaling releases cooperatively repressed targets to promote TH17 cell differentiation

    • Katharina M Jeltsch
    • , Desheng Hu
    • , Sven Brenner
    • , Jessica Zöller
    • , Gitta A Heinz
    • , Daniel Nagel
    • , Katharina U Vogel
    • , Nina Rehage
    • , Sebastian C Warth
    • , Stephanie L Edelmann
    • , Renee Gloury
    • , Nina Martin
    • , Claudia Lohs
    • , Maciej Lech
    • , Jenny E Stehklein
    • , Arie Geerlof
    • , Elisabeth Kremmer
    • , Achim Weber
    • , Hans-Joachim Anders
    • , Ingo Schmitz
    • , Marc Schmidt-Supprian
    • , Mingui Fu
    • , Helmut Holtmann
    • , Daniel Krappmann
    • , Jürgen Ruland
    • , Axel Kallies
    • , Mathias Heikenwalder
    •  & Vigo Heissmeyer

Corrigenda