Volume 12 Issue 3, March 2011

Volume 12 Issue 3

Symbiotic microbes spontaneously induce the cytidine deaminase AID in germinal center B cells to diversify the intestinal immunoglobulin A repertoire by somatic hypermutation. Honjo and colleagues show that a knock-in mutation of the gene encoding AID resulting in a somatic hypermutation- specific defect causes compromised mucosal defense. The original fluorescent microscopy image shows germinal center B cells (yellow) and nonactivated B cells (red) in Peyer's patches. Original image by Min Wei. Artwork by Lewis Long.

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Nature Immunology launches its first podcast with a historical piece on immunology at the UK's National Institute of Medical Research as plans develop for the future of the institute.

Commentary

  • Commentary |

    Infections in infants continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the immune mechanisms that operate in infants is necessary for the development of new approaches to improve the health of infants around the world.

    • Mercy PrabhuDas
    • , Becky Adkins
    • , Hayley Gans
    • , Christopher King
    • , Ofer Levy
    • , Octavio Ramilo
    •  & Claire-Anne Siegrist

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    MicroRNAs regulate many biological functions. Research now indicates that intestinal epithelial microRNAs might also regulate the differentiation of goblet cells and promote T helper type 2 immune responses to parasite infection.

    • Yoshiyuki Goto
    •  & Hiroshi Kiyono
  • News & Views |

    Direct evaluation of the contribution of somatic hypermutation (SHM) to mucosal immunity has been hampered by the lack of models able to dissociate SHM from class-switch recombination, which are both dependent on the cytidine deaminase AID. A new mouse AID model now demonstrates the critical role of SHM in the control of gut bacteria.

    • Kang Chen
    •  & Andrea Cerutti
  • News & Views |

    During the past few decades, the vital and lethal functions of mitochondria have been investigated extensively. Data now demonstrate that these organelles also regulate the innate immune response by modulating inflammasome-mediated generation of proinflammatory cytokines.

    • Oliver Kepp
    • , Lorenzo Galluzzi
    •  & Guido Kroemer
  • News & Views |

    The NADPH oxidase of professional phagocytes has an important role in host defense against certain microbes, including tuberculous mycobacteria. The identification of patients with rare inherited hypomorphic mutations in genes encoding components of this enzyme complex could produce new mechanistic insights.

    • Adrian J Thrasher
    •  & Anthony W Segal

Research Highlights

  • Research Highlights |

    • Laurie A Dempsey
    • , Zoltan Fehervari
    •  & Ioana Visan

Review

Articles

  • Article |

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare syndrome. Casanova and colleagues characterize MSMD in two kindreds and find macrophage-tropic mutations in genes encoding the respiratory burst machinery predispose these kindreds to mycobacterial diseases.

    • Jacinta Bustamante
    • , Andres A Arias
    • , Guillaume Vogt
    • , Capucine Picard
    • , Lizbeth Blancas Galicia
    • , Carolina Prando
    • , Audrey V Grant
    • , Christophe C Marchal
    • , Marjorie Hubeau
    • , Ariane Chapgier
    • , Ludovic de Beaucoudrey
    • , Anne Puel
    • , Jacqueline Feinberg
    • , Ethan Valinetz
    • , Lucile Jannière
    • , Céline Besse
    • , Anne Boland
    • , Jean-Marie Brisseau
    • , Stéphane Blanche
    • , Olivier Lortholary
    • , Claire Fieschi
    • , Jean-François Emile
    • , Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis
    • , Saleh Al-Muhsen
    • , Bruce Woda
    • , Peter E Newburger
    • , Antonio Condino-Neto
    • , Mary C Dinauer
    • , Laurent Abel
    •  & Jean-Laurent Casanova
  • Article |

    Autophagy is a physiological process that involves the engulfment and degradation of organelles. Choi and colleagues demonstrate that autophagy is important for the removal of damaged mitochondria and thus the control of inflammation.

    • Kiichi Nakahira
    • , Jeffrey Adam Haspel
    • , Vijay A K Rathinam
    • , Seon-Jin Lee
    • , Tamas Dolinay
    • , Hilaire C Lam
    • , Joshua A Englert
    • , Marlene Rabinovitch
    • , Manuela Cernadas
    • , Hong Pyo Kim
    • , Katherine A Fitzgerald
    • , Stefan W Ryter
    •  & Augustine M K Choi
  • Article |

    Macrophages are functionally highly plastic, but the transcriptional control of this process is only partially understood. Udalova and colleagues demonstrate that the transcription factor IRF5 controls the plasticity of M1 macrophages in both mice and humans.

    • Thomas Krausgruber
    • , Katrina Blazek
    • , Tim Smallie
    • , Saba Alzabin
    • , Helen Lockstone
    • , Natasha Sahgal
    • , Tracy Hussell
    • , Marc Feldmann
    •  & Irina A Udalova
  • Article |

    Normal gut–immune system homeostasis requires interactions among epithelial cells, lymphocytes and host microflora. Ben-Neriah and colleagues show that defined microRNA expression in the gut mucosa is also important for maintaining gut integrity and homeostasis.

    • Moshe Biton
    • , Avi Levin
    • , Michal Slyper
    • , Irit Alkalay
    • , Elad Horwitz
    • , Hagar Mor
    • , Sharon Kredo-Russo
    • , Tali Avnit-Sagi
    • , Gady Cojocaru
    • , Farid Zreik
    • , Zvi Bentwich
    • , Matthew N Poy
    • , David Artis
    • , Michael D Walker
    • , Eran Hornstein
    • , Eli Pikarsky
    •  & Yinon Ben-Neriah
  • Article |

    Loss of IL-2 signaling results in autoimmunity. Laurence and colleagues show that the IL-2–STAT5 axis counteracts STAT3 activation of Il17 to dampen IL-17 production independently of Foxp3.

    • Xiang-Ping Yang
    • , Kamran Ghoreschi
    • , Scott M Steward-Tharp
    • , Jaime Rodriguez-Canales
    • , Jinfang Zhu
    • , John R Grainger
    • , Kiyoshi Hirahara
    • , Hong-Wei Sun
    • , Lai Wei
    • , Golnaz Vahedi
    • , Yuka Kanno
    • , John J O'Shea
    •  & Arian Laurence
  • Article |

    Although in vitro–generated cells of the TH17 helper T cell subset are highly plastic, it is unclear whether TH17 cells that develop in vivo retain their phenotype. To investigate this, Stockinger and colleagues have generated a TH17 reporter system to map the fate of these cells in vivo.

    • Keiji Hirota
    • , João H Duarte
    • , Marc Veldhoen
    • , Eve Hornsby
    • , Ying Li
    • , Daniel J Cua
    • , Helena Ahlfors
    • , Christoph Wilhelm
    • , Mauro Tolaini
    • , Ursula Menzel
    • , Anna Garefalaki
    • , Alexandre J Potocnik
    •  & Brigitta Stockinger
  • Article |

    Secretory IgA protects mucosal surfaces. Honjo and colleagues show that somatic hypermutation of IgA dependent on the cytidine deaminase AID is necessary to maintain gut immune homeostasis and shapes the intestinal microflora population.

    • Min Wei
    • , Reiko Shinkura
    • , Yasuko Doi
    • , Mikako Maruya
    • , Sidonia Fagarasan
    •  & Tasuku Honjo

Errata

  • Erratum |

    • Charles Dinarello
    • , William Arend
    • , John Sims
    • , Dirk Smith
    • , Hal Blumberg
    • , Luke O'Neill
    • , Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky
    • , Theresa Pizarro
    • , H Hoffman
    • , Philip Bufler
    • , Marcel Nold
    • , Pietro Ghezzi
    • , Alberto Mantovani
    • , Cecilia Garlanda
    • , Diana Boraschi
    • , Anna Rubartelli
    • , Mihai Netea
    • , Jos van der Meer
    • , Leo Joosten
    • , Tom Mandrup-Poulsen
    • , Marc Donath
    • , Eli Lewis
    • , Josef Pfeilschifter
    • , Michael Martin
    • , Michael Kracht
    • , H Muehl
    • , Daniela Novick
    • , Miodrag Lukic
    • , Bruno Conti
    • , Alan Solinger
    • , Kelk Peyman
    • , Frank van de Veerdonk
    •  & Chiristopher Gabel

Corrigenda