Volume 12 Issue 12, December 2011

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    With the announcement of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, immunology research is once again in the limelight.

Obituary

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Two studies identify a tissue-autonomous innate immune mechanism whereby infection provokes epithelial cells to produce IL-17C that engages an epithelial receptor composed of IL-17RA and IL-17RE chains, which promotes host defense and immune activation.

    • Mahima Swamy
    •  & Adrian Hayday
  • News & Views |

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) recognize lipid-based antigens presented by CD1d. The mammalian glycolipid β-glucosylceramide, a ubiquitous self antigen for NKT cells, is upregulated by microbial danger signals, which leads to activation of NKT cells in the absence of foreign glycolipid antigen.

    • Dale I Godfrey
    • , Daniel G Pellicci
    •  & Jamie Rossjohn
  • News & Views |

    Becoming covered in platelets rescues complement-opsonized blood-borne bacteria from rapid clearance by macrophages and redirects them to dendritic cells. Although this allows priming of T cells and the generation of immune memory, bacteria can exploit this route as a beachhead and disseminate throughout host tissues.

    • Steffen Jung
  • News & Views |

    The transcription factor STAT5 can activate or repress gene expression depending on whether binding of dimer or tetrameric STAT5 occurs. Tetrameric STAT5 recruits the chromatin modifier Ezh2 to silence gene expression.

    • Michael A Farrar
    •  & Lynn M Heltemes Harris

Research Highlights

Review

Articles

  • Article |

    IL-17C is induced in epithelia by bacterial and inflammation stimuli. Pappu and colleagues show that IL-17C signals in an autocrine manner through the IL-17RA-IL-17RE receptor complex to regulate epithelial immune responses.

    • Vladimir Ramirez-Carrozzi
    • , Arivazhagan Sambandam
    • , Elizabeth Luis
    • , Zhongua Lin
    • , Surinder Jeet
    • , Justin Lesch
    • , Jason Hackney
    • , Janice Kim
    • , Meijuan Zhou
    • , Joyce Lai
    • , Zora Modrusan
    • , Tao Sai
    • , Wyne Lee
    • , Min Xu
    • , Patrick Caplazi
    • , Lauri Diehl
    • , Jason de Voss
    • , Mercedesz Balazs
    • , Lino Gonzalez Jr
    • , Harinder Singh
    • , Wenjun Ouyang
    •  & Rajita Pappu
  • Article |

    The stability of interleukin 6 transcripts is negatively regulated by the RNAse regnase-1. Akira and colleagues show that regnase-1 is targeted for degradation by phosphorylation mediated by the kinase IKK, which allows more interleukin 6 production.

    • Hidenori Iwasaki
    • , Osamu Takeuchi
    • , Shunsuke Teraguchi
    • , Kazufumi Matsushita
    • , Takuya Uehata
    • , Kanako Kuniyoshi
    • , Takashi Satoh
    • , Tatsuya Saitoh
    • , Mutsuyoshi Matsushita
    • , Daron M Standley
    •  & Shizuo Akira
  • Article |

    The deubiquitinase A20 is a negative regulator of transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathways. Ma and colleagues show that mice lacking A20 expression in dendritic cells have defective lymphocyte homeostasis and develop spontaneous inflammatory disease.

    • Gianna Elena Hammer
    • , Emre E Turer
    • , Kimberly E Taylor
    • , Celia J Fang
    • , Rommel Advincula
    • , Shigeru Oshima
    • , Julio Barrera
    • , Eric J Huang
    • , Baidong Hou
    • , Barbara A Malynn
    • , Boris Reizis
    • , Anthony DeFranco
    • , Lindsey A Criswell
    • , Mary C Nakamura
    •  & Averil Ma
  • Article |

    The priming of an antibacterial response requires the uptake and presentation of bacterial antigens by dendritic cells. Busch and colleagues describe a new platelet-dependent mechanism for shuttling bacteria to dendritic cells.

    • Admar Verschoor
    • , Michael Neuenhahn
    • , Alexander A Navarini
    • , Patricia Graef
    • , Ann Plaumann
    • , Amelie Seidlmeier
    • , Bernhard Nieswandt
    • , Steffen Massberg
    • , Rolf M Zinkernagel
    • , Hans Hengartner
    •  & Dirk H Busch
  • Article |

    The identification of an endogenous ligand for natural killer T cells has remained elusive. Brenner and colleagues identify β-d-glucopyranosylceramide as a physiologically important self ligand for these cells.

    • Patrick J Brennan
    • , Raju V V Tatituri
    • , Manfred Brigl
    • , Edy Y Kim
    • , Amit Tuli
    • , Joseph P Sanderson
    • , Stephan D Gadola
    • , Fong-Fu Hsu
    • , Gurdyal S Besra
    •  & Michael B Brenner
  • Article |

    The transcription factor STAT5 commonly activates gene transcription. Clark and colleagues show that tetrameric STAT5, induced by high concentrations of interleukin 7, can repress gene expression by recruitment of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2.

    • Malay Mandal
    • , Sarah E Powers
    • , Mark Maienschein-Cline
    • , Elizabeth T Bartom
    • , Keith M Hamel
    • , Barbara L Kee
    • , Aaron R Dinner
    •  & Marcus R Clark
  • Article |

    Id proteins negatively regulate the binding of E-protein transcription factors to DNA. Goldrath et al. show that Id2 and Id3 are important in the generation of memory in distinct functional populations of CD8+ cells.

    • Cliff Y Yang
    • , J Adam Best
    • , Jamie Knell
    • , Edward Yang
    • , Alison D Sheridan
    • , Adam K Jesionek
    • , Haiyan S Li
    • , Richard R Rivera
    • , Kristin Camfield Lind
    • , Louise M D'Cruz
    • , Stephanie S Watowich
    • , Cornelis Murre
    •  & Ananda W Goldrath
  • Article |

    The molecular basis of CD8+ memory is still being delineated. Gattinoni et al. show that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 is critical for the formation of long-lived memory.

    • Yun Ji
    • , Zoltan Pos
    • , Mahadev Rao
    • , Christopher A Klebanoff
    • , Zhiya Yu
    • , Madhusudhanan Sukumar
    • , Robert N Reger
    • , Douglas C Palmer
    • , Zachary A Borman
    • , Pawel Muranski
    • , Ena Wang
    • , David S Schrump
    • , Francesco M Marincola
    • , Nicholas P Restifo
    •  & Luca Gattinoni
  • Article |

    The TH17 subset of helper T cells can produce interleukins IL-17 and IL-22, although regulation of these cytokines expression differ. Ouyang and colleagues show that TGF-β induces upregulation of the transcription factor c-Maf, which suppresses IL-22 expression.

    • Sascha Rutz
    • , Rajkumar Noubade
    • , Céline Eidenschenk
    • , Naruhisa Ota
    • , Wenwen Zeng
    • , Yan Zheng
    • , Jason Hackney
    • , Jiabing Ding
    • , Harinder Singh
    •  & Wenjun Ouyang