Reviews & Analysis

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  • In this Review, Mittelbrunn and Kroemer propose that ten molecular hallmarks represent the common denominators of T cell aging.

    • Maria Mittelbrunn
    • Guido Kroemer
    Review Article
  • As a follow up to a 2010 meeting deliberating on the benefits of studying mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the virtual conference “Mouse models of lupus 10 years later” convened on 10 December 2020 to address a challenging decade that saw few new therapies approved, despite leaps in knowledge.

    • Erica Moore
    • Joshua A. Reynolds
    • Chaim Putterman
    Meeting Report
  • Single-cell technologies reveal the building blocks of secondary lymphoid organs, identifying Grem1+ fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) as critical niche cells that contribute to resident dendritic cell homeostasis and T cell immunity.

    • Antonio P. Baptista
    • Michael Y. Gerner
    News & Views
  • A systems immunology analysis of controlled human malaria infections in Africans who were malaria experienced and Europeans who were malaria naive yields new insights into old questions of malaria immunity.

    • Prasida Holla
    • Tuan M. Tran
    News & Views
  • T cell responses probably play important roles in the control of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but they have been relatively understudied. Data now suggest that the majority of infected individuals develop robust and long-lasting T cell immunity, which has implications for the durability of immunity and future vaccine approaches.

    • Prasanna Jagannathan
    • Taia T. Wang
    News & Views
  • The TAM receptor kinases Axl and Mer are critical for microglial recognition and clearance of accumulating amyloid in transgenic models of Alzheimer’s disease.

    • Edward N. Wilson
    • Katrin I. Andreasson
    News & Views
  • HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells triggers the interaction of the mitochondrial proteins NLRX1 and FASTKD5 to promote oxidative phosphorylation, leading to increased viral replication. It has now been shown that this process can be blocked by metformin.

    • Emily A. Day
    • Luke A. J. O’Neill
    News & Views
  • The eradication of pathogens and establishment of immunological memory depend on the generation of both effector and long-lived memory cells within specialized immune niches. Whole-organ imaging demonstrates that, during viral infection, the fate of CD8+ T cells in lymph nodes is coupled to chemotactic signals controlling their distribution within different microanatomical sites.

    • Liat Stoler-Barak
    • Ziv Shulman
    News & Views
  • In the colonic environment, sustained Wnt–β-catenin activation in regulatory T cells promotes epigenetic rewiring toward proinflammatory RORγt+ Treg cells, whose expansion parallels the disease progression from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to manifest colorectal cancer (CRC).

    • Stefania Canè
    • Vincenzo Bronte
    News & Views
  • Riok2 haploinsufficiency leads to aberrant TH22 skewing and interleukin-22-mediated erythroid dysfunction.

    • Mark Gower
    • Gena Foster
    • Anastasia N. Tikhonova
    News & Views
  • In the midst of resurging COVID-19 cases, the second NIH/FDA virtual COVID-19 and Cytokines symposium was held on 1 December 2020, focusing on longitudinal studies of COVID-19 immunity, including long-term consequences, potential associations with autoimmunity and the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).

    • Maja Buszko
    • Aleksandra Nita-Lazar
    • Amy S. Rosenberg
    Meeting Report
  • The NLRP3 inflammasome is a central operator in inflammation. Sharma and Kanneganti review the varied roles played by the NLRP3 inflammasome in cancer and metabolic diseases.

    • Bhesh Raj Sharma
    • Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
    Review Article
  • The Global Thymus Network convened virtually for ThymUS 2020 on 3–4 November 2020. Participants shared recent advances in thymus biology and enjoyed a reprieve from 2020 stressors.

    • Susannah C. Shissler
    • Avinash Bhandoola
    Meeting Report
  • Long-term pathogen and tumor control as well as checkpoint immunotherapies rely on ‘stem-like’ CD8+ T cells. New results uncover BACH2 as a key regulator of this subpopulation and solve an important piece of the puzzle.

    • Lara Labarta-Bajo
    • Elina I. Zúñiga
    News & Views
  • Brain tumors respire more oxygen, causing a hypoxic microenvironment that impairs innate γδ T cell–mediated antitumor activity. Reducing oxygen consumption by brain tumors or inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in γδ T cells reinvigorates γδ T cell tumor-killing activity, leading to prolonged survival in brain-tumor-bearing mice.

    • Jun Yan
    News & Views
  • The transition of Sub-Saharan Africans from rural settings and traditional plant-rich diets to urban settings and calorie-dense Westernized diets has led to specific shifts in serum metabolites and activates a heightened proinflammatory state in immune cells.

    • Robert T. Patry
    • Cathryn R. Nagler
    News & Views
  • New research demonstrates that γδ T cells recognize Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes via interaction of the T cell antigen receptor with the phosphoantigen sensor BTN3A1 and subsequently destroy infected cells through either cytotoxic molecule secretion or antibody-dependent phagocytosis.

    • Mitchell N. Lefebvre
    • John T. Harty
    News & Views
  • IRGM1 is recognized as a master regulator of type I interferon responses against pathogens, while also protecting against autoimmune diseases. It has now been shown that IRGM1 controls autoinflammatory responses by modulating mitophagy flux.

    • Brett A. Kaufman
    • Ana L. Mora
    News & Views