Latest Research

  • Article |

    The immune response to pathogens varies substantially among humans. Netea and colleagues show that integration of multi-omics data and deep phenotyping enables prediction of cytokine production in responses to pathogens.

    • Olivier B. Bakker
    • , Raul Aguirre-Gamboa
    • , Serena Sanna
    • , Marije Oosting
    • , Sanne P. Smeekens
    • , Martin Jaeger
    • , Maria Zorro
    • , Urmo Võsa
    • , Sebo Withoff
    • , Romana T. Netea-Maier
    • , Hans J. P. M. Koenen
    • , Irma Joosten
    • , Ramnik J. Xavier
    • , Lude Franke
    • , Leo A. B. Joosten
    • , Vinod Kumar
    • , Cisca Wijmenga
    • , Mihai G. Netea
    •  & Yang Li
  • Article |

    Semaphorins play well-known roles in axon guidance. Kumanogoh and colleagues demonstrate that Semaphorin 6D cell-intrinsically activates anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization.

    • Sujin Kang
    • , Yoshimitsu Nakanishi
    • , Yoshiyuki Kioi
    • , Daisuke Okuzaki
    • , Tetsuya Kimura
    • , Hyota Takamatsu
    • , Shohei Koyama
    • , Satoshi Nojima
    • , Masayuki Nishide
    • , Yoshitomo Hayama
    • , Yuhei Kinehara
    • , Yasuhiro Kato
    • , Takeshi Nakatani
    • , Tomomi Shimogori
    • , Junichi Takagi
    • , Toshihiko Toyofuku
    •  & Atsushi Kumanogoh
  • Technical Report |

    Isolating tissue-resident cells runs the risk of altering their expression profile. Jung and colleagues use a RiboTagging approach to describe the microglial translatome and demonstrate that macrophage extraction from their tissue environment results in significant transcriptional alterations.

    • Zhana Haimon
    • , Alon Volaski
    • , Johannes Orthgiess
    • , Sigalit Boura-Halfon
    • , Diana Varol
    • , Anat Shemer
    • , Simon Yona
    • , Binyamin Zuckerman
    • , Eyal David
    • , Louise Chappell-Maor
    • , Ingo Bechmann
    • , Martin Gericke
    • , Igor Ulitsky
    •  & Steffen Jung
  • Article |

    Sixt, Stein and colleagues show that during T cell migration within lymphatic organs, the chemokine receptor CCR7 quantitatively controls the speed of a continuous actin flow, which is coupled to the environment by the integrin LFA-1.

    • Miroslav Hons
    • , Aglaja Kopf
    • , Robert Hauschild
    • , Alexander Leithner
    • , Florian Gaertner
    • , Jun Abe
    • , Jörg Renkawitz
    • , Jens V. Stein
    •  & Michael Sixt
  • Resource |

    Influenza can occasionally result in life-threatening sequelae. Openshaw and colleagues describe the functional and transcriptional response to natural infection with influenza virus and find that a transition to an ‘anti-bacterial response’ is associated with more-severe symptoms.

    • Jake Dunning
    • , Simon Blankley
    • , Long T. Hoang
    • , Mike Cox
    • , Christine M. Graham
    • , Philip L. James
    • , Chloe I. Bloom
    • , Damien Chaussabel
    • , Jacques Banchereau
    • , Stephen J. Brett
    • , Miriam F. Moffatt
    • , Anne O’Garra
    •  & Peter J. M. Openshaw
  • Article |

    CARD9 serves as an adaptor for C-type lectin receptor signaling. Xin Lin and colleagues show that CARD9 inhibits RelB-mediated IL-5 expression. The CARD9S12N mutant, prevalent in humans, cannot interact with RelB and promotes enhanced allergic responses to fungal pathogens.

    • Xia Xu
    • , Jin-Fu Xu
    • , Guoxing Zheng
    • , Hai-Wen Lu
    • , Jie-Lin Duan
    • , Wei Rui
    • , Jian-Hong Guan
    • , Li-Qing Cheng
    • , Dan-Dan Yang
    • , Ming-Chao Wang
    • , Quan-Zhen Lv
    • , Jian-Xiong Li
    • , Xueqiang Zhao
    • , Chun-Xia Chen
    • , Peng Shi
    • , Xin-Ming Jia
    •  & Xin Lin
  • Article |

    Carbohydrate-specific antibodies are typically thought to be of low affinity and produced by T cell–independent pathways. Wardemann and colleagues identify human memory B cells that can produce specific ‘affinity-matured’ antibodies to the O antigen of Klebsiella lipopolysaccharides.

    • Tim Rollenske
    • , Valeria Szijarto
    • , Jolanta Lukasiewicz
    • , Luis M. Guachalla
    • , Katarina Stojkovic
    • , Katharina Hartl
    • , Lukas Stulik
    • , Simone Kocher
    • , Felix Lasitschka
    • , Mohammed Al-Saeedi
    • , Jutta Schröder-Braunstein
    • , Moritz von Frankenberg
    • , Gereon Gaebelein
    • , Peter Hoffmann
    • , Sabrina Klein
    • , Klaus Heeg
    • , Eszter Nagy
    • , Gabor Nagy
    •  & Hedda Wardemann
  • Article |

    McGaha and colleagues show that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells leads to activation of the transcription factor AhR and production of the cytokine IL-10 in phagocytes, in a manner dependent on the recognition of DNA.

    • Rahul Shinde
    • , Kebria Hezaveh
    • , Marie Jo Halaby
    • , Andreas Kloetgen
    • , Ankur Chakravarthy
    • , Tiago da Silva Medina
    • , Reema Deol
    • , Kieran P. Manion
    • , Yuriy Baglaenko
    • , Maria Eldh
    • , Sara Lamorte
    • , Drew Wallace
    • , Sathi Babu Chodisetti
    • , Buvana Ravishankar
    • , Haiyun Liu
    • , Kapil Chaudhary
    • , David H. Munn
    • , Aristotelis Tsirigos
    • , Michael Madaio
    • , Susanne Gabrielsson
    • , Zahi Touma
    • , Joan Wither
    • , Daniel D. De Carvalho
    •  & Tracy L. McGaha
  • Publisher Correction |

    • Etienne Patin
    • , Milena Hasan
    • , Jacob Bergstedt
    • , Vincent Rouilly
    • , Valentina Libri
    • , Alejandra Urrutia
    • , Cécile Alanio
    • , Petar Scepanovic
    • , Christian Hammer
    • , Friederike Jönsson
    • , Benoît Beitz
    • , Hélène Quach
    • , Yoong Wearn Lim
    • , Julie Hunkapiller
    • , Magge Zepeda
    • , Cherie Green
    • , Barbara Piasecka
    • , Claire Leloup
    • , Lars Rogge
    • , François Huetz
    • , Isabelle Peguillet
    • , Olivier Lantz
    • , Magnus Fontes
    • , James P. Di Santo
    • , Stéphanie Thomas
    • , Jacques Fellay
    • , Darragh Duffy
    • , Lluís Quintana-Murci
    •  & Matthew L. Albert
  • Article |

    Dyslipidemia and autoimmune disease are often associated. Chung and colleagues demonstrate a mechanistic pathway by which dyslipidemia leads to the induction of pathogenic autoantibodies.

    • Heeju Ryu
    • , Hoyong Lim
    • , Garam Choi
    • , Young-Jun Park
    • , Minkyoung Cho
    • , Hyeongjin Na
    • , Chul Won Ahn
    • , Young Chul Kim
    • , Wan-Uk Kim
    • , Sang-Hak Lee
    •  & Yeonseok Chung
  • Article |

    Lynch, Brenner and colleagues find that tissue-resident γδ T cells reside in adipose tissues in both mice and humans. These cells play essential roles in regulating thermogenesis and supporting age-dependent increases in adipose-tissue regulatory T cell populations.

    • Ayano C. Kohlgruber
    • , Shani T. Gal-Oz
    • , Nelson M. LaMarche
    • , Moto Shimazaki
    • , Danielle Duquette
    • , Hung N. Nguyen
    • , Amir I. Mina
    • , Tyler Paras
    • , Ali Tavakkoli
    • , Ulrich von Andrian
    • , Alexander S. Banks
    • , Tal Shay
    • , Michael B. Brenner
    •  & Lydia Lynch
  • Article |

    Macrophages can be an important niche for chronic viral infection. Walker and colleagues demonstrate that macrophages are intrinsically resistant to CTL-mediated killing and can thereby contribute to the maintenance of HIV reservoirs and chronic inflammation.

    • Kiera L. Clayton
    • , David R. Collins
    • , Josh Lengieza
    • , Musie Ghebremichael
    • , Farokh Dotiwala
    • , Judy Lieberman
    •  & Bruce D. Walker
  • Article |

    The transcription factor c-Maf controls IL-10 production in T cells. O’Garra and colleagues use systems and in vivo functional analysis of T cell subsets to reveal distinct context-specific roles for c-Maf.

    • Leona Gabryšová
    • , Marisol Alvarez-Martinez
    • , Raphaëlle Luisier
    • , Luke S. Cox
    • , Jan Sodenkamp
    • , Caroline Hosking
    • , Damián Pérez-Mazliah
    • , Charlotte Whicher
    • , Yashaswini Kannan
    • , Krzysztof Potempa
    • , Xuemei Wu
    • , Leena Bhaw
    • , Hagen Wende
    • , Michael H. Sieweke
    • , Greg Elgar
    • , Mark Wilson
    • , James Briscoe
    • , Vicki Metzis
    • , Jean Langhorne
    • , Nicholas M. Luscombe
    •  & Anne O’Garra
  • Letter |

    Harris and colleagues show that the cytokine TGF-β is required for colonization of the microglial niche and maintenance of central nervous system integrity. Acute loss of TGF-β leads to proinflammatory responses and fatal demyelinating disease.

    • Harald Lund
    • , Melanie Pieber
    • , Roham Parsa
    • , David Grommisch
    • , Ewoud Ewing
    • , Lara Kular
    • , Jinming Han
    • , Keying Zhu
    • , Jik Nijssen
    • , Eva Hedlund
    • , Maria Needhamsen
    • , Sabrina Ruhrmann
    • , André Ortlieb Guerreiro-Cacais
    • , Rasmus Berglund
    • , Maria J. Forteza
    • , Daniel F. J. Ketelhuth
    • , Oleg Butovsky
    • , Maja Jagodic
    • , Xing-Mei Zhang
    •  & Robert A. Harris
  • Article |

    Higher-order TCRs have been postulated to maintain high antigen sensitivity and trigger signaling. Huppa and colleagues use various investigative techniques and find exclusively monomeric TCR–CD3 complexes that drive the recognition of antigenic pMHC.

    • Mario Brameshuber
    • , Florian Kellner
    • , Benedikt K. Rossboth
    • , Haisen Ta
    • , Kevin Alge
    • , Eva Sevcsik
    • , Janett Göhring
    • , Markus Axmann
    • , Florian Baumgart
    • , Nicholas R. J. Gascoigne
    • , Simon J. Davis
    • , Hannes Stockinger
    • , Gerhard J. Schütz
    •  & Johannes B. Huppa
  • Article |

    NK cells constrain infection by cytomegalovirus. Romagnani and colleagues show that human NKG2C+ NK cells recognize distinct HCMV UL40 viral peptides, which can vary among viral isolates. NKG2C+ NK cells thereby demonstrate adaptive-like recognition that can discriminate between closely related viral strains.

    • Quirin Hammer
    • , Timo Rückert
    • , Eva Maria Borst
    • , Josefine Dunst
    • , André Haubner
    • , Pawel Durek
    • , Frederik Heinrich
    • , Gilles Gasparoni
    • , Marina Babic
    • , Adriana Tomic
    • , Gabriella Pietra
    • , Mikalai Nienen
    • , Igor Wolfgang Blau
    • , Jörg Hofmann
    • , Il-Kang Na
    • , Immo Prinz
    • , Christian Koenecke
    • , Philipp Hemmati
    • , Nina Babel
    • , Renate Arnold
    • , Jörn Walter
    • , Kevin Thurley
    • , Mir-Farzin Mashreghi
    • , Martin Messerle
    •  & Chiara Romagnani
  • Article |

    Act1 is an adaptor protein that associates with the IL-17 receptor at the cell membrane. Li and colleagues show that Act1 also exhibits unexpected RNA-binding activity and directly stabilizes select mRNAs encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

    • Tomasz Herjan
    • , Lingzi Hong
    • , Jodi Bubenik
    • , Katarzyna Bulek
    • , Wen Qian
    • , Caini Liu
    • , Xiao Li
    • , Xing Chen
    • , Hui Yang
    • , Suidong Ouyang
    • , Hao Zhou
    • , Junjie Zhao
    • , Kommireddy Vasu
    • , Eric Cockman
    • , Mark Aronica
    • , Kewal Asosingh
    • , Donny D. Licatalosi
    • , Jun Qin
    • , Paul L. Fox
    • , Thomas A. Hamilton
    • , Donna Driscoll
    •  & Xiaoxia Li
  • Article |

    The cytokine IL-33 has major roles in type 2 immunity and allergy. Girard and colleagues demonstrate that a broad range of allergens across multiple kingdoms can directly cleave IL-33 via their intrinsic protease activity and convert it into a highly active processed form.

    • Corinne Cayrol
    • , Anais Duval
    • , Pauline Schmitt
    • , Stephane Roga
    • , Mylène Camus
    • , Alexandre Stella
    • , Odile Burlet-Schiltz
    • , Anne Gonzalez-de-Peredo
    •  & Jean-Philippe Girard
  • Article |

    Sander and colleagues show that antigen-presenting cells detect bacterial RNA from live bacteria via TLR8 and promote TFH cell differentiation and vaccine responses through the induction of a specific cytokine profile.

    • Matteo Ugolini
    • , Jenny Gerhard
    • , Sanne Burkert
    • , Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen
    • , Philipp Georg
    • , Friederike Ebner
    • , Sarah M. Volkers
    • , Shruthi Thada
    • , Kristina Dietert
    • , Laura Bauer
    • , Alexander Schäfer
    • , Elisa T. Helbig
    • , Bastian Opitz
    • , Florian Kurth
    • , Saubashya Sur
    • , Nickel Dittrich
    • , Sumanlatha Gaddam
    • , Melanie L. Conrad
    • , Christine S. Benn
    • , Ulrike Blohm
    • , Achim D. Gruber
    • , Andreas Hutloff
    • , Susanne Hartmann
    • , Mark V. Boekschoten
    • , Michael Müller
    • , Gregers Jungersen
    • , Ralf R. Schumann
    • , Norbert Suttorp
    •  & Leif E. Sander
  • Article |

    Tumor cells commonly manipulate their environment to ensure their survival. Kuan and Ziegler show that breast cancer cells release IL-1α, which acts on infiltrating myeloid cells to elicit their production of TSLP. In turn, TSLP promotes the survival of TSLPR+ tumor cells by upregulating expression of the pro-survival factor Bcl-2.

    • Emma L. Kuan
    •  & Steven F. Ziegler