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The January 2012 special issue presents two important strategies for generating potent and lasting anti-tumor immunity. The first strategy is to subvert immune suppressive networks in the tumor microenvironment. The second strategy is to optimize conventional and anti-biological modalities to directly target tumor and adjacent tumor tissue, and mobilize and expand anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment which results in tumor eradication. Further background information on this important topic is available through the accompanying web focus which links to related articles from across Springer Nature.
The transcription factor NF-κB orchestrates many facets that underlie the development and homeostasis of immune system cells and the generation of immune responses. Nature Immunologypresents six specially commissioned reviews to mark the 25th anniversary of the discovery of NF-κB.
In recent decades enormous effort has been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Autoimmunity is a multifactorial process in which genetic, immunological, environmental and hormonal factors act in concert, representing what was termed some years ago the “mosaic of autoimmunity”. The May 2011 Special Issue on Cutting Edge Issues in Immunology and Autoimmunity summarizes our current understanding of this complex mosaic. The accompanying selection of recent articles from across the Springer Nature provide further insight into this topic.
Celiac disease is an intestinal inflammatory disorder that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals and causes intolerance to wheat protein gluten and related proteins (prolamines) that are contained in barley and rye. Histologically, the small bowel mucosa in celiac disease shows villous atrophy (lost of villi), crypt hyperplasia and lymphocyte infiltration. To allow better understand the histological damage that occurs during mucosal changes Marsh proposed a series of stages to aid diagnostics: Marsh I represents lymphocytic enteritis, Marsh II represents lymphocytic enteritis with crypt hyperplasia, and Marsh III represents partial (a), subtotal (b) and total (c) villous atrophy. These changes are accompanied by a gradual increase in the number of T cells and activation of immunoregulatory counteractions in the diseased mucosa. The March 2011 special issue on celiac sprue and mucosal immunity presents some of the latest advances in celiac disease diagnostics; the web focus further expands our understanding of this inflammatory disorder through a collection of recent articles from across Springer Nature.
Since the establishment of the TH1-TH2 paradigm, many other types of specialized T helper cells, including TH17 and regulatory T cells, have been identified. A Nature Collection highlights some seminal research in this fast-paced field.
Nature Immunologywas launched 10 years ago in July 2000. To commemorate this anniversary we asked several prominent scientists to imagine what the next decade of research might bring in particular areas of immunology.
Helper T cell heterogeneity was discovered two decades ago, initially with the designation of Th1 and Th2 cells, which are involved in immunity against intracellular and extracellular pathogens, respectively. Several years ago a third lineage was identified as the Th17 cells and several novel T cell subsets have since been found, including Treg and Tfh cells. The collection of articles presented in the May special issue and accompanying web focus summarize our understanding of the development and function of the T cell subsets in immunity and immune diseases.
An overview, four review articles and two perspective articles cover the cellular and molecular mechanisms required to maintain self tolerance, as well as events that can precipitate tolerance breakdown and lead to autoimmunity.
Immune cells are constantly in motion in surveillance for potential microbial threats. Here we present a collection of reviews that describe the trafficking patterns, cues and means by which immune cells transit tissues in health and in response to infections.