Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    Pierce and colleagues discuss the cellular consequences of BCR signaling and recent advances in the understanding of B cell signaling in context in vivo.

    • Kihyuck Kwak
    • , Munir Akkaya
    •  & Susan K. Pierce
  • Review Article |

    Underlying inflammatory bowel disease is a complex web of activated immune cells. In this Review, Neurath delineates the cells, pathways and signals that contribute to the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease and the potential for therapeutic intervention.

    • Markus F. Neurath
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Pearce and colleagues discuss the metabolic adaptation of immune cells to various tissues and how functional adaptation compared with maladaptation within the niche can affect tissue homeostasis.

    • George Caputa
    • , Angela Castoldi
    •  & Edward J. Pearce
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Natoli and Ostuni discuss the mechanisms of adaptation and memory in immunity, with the aim of providing basic concepts that rationalize the properties and molecular bases of these essential processes.

    • Gioacchino Natoli
    •  & Renato Ostuni
  • Review Article |

    Comprehensive immunity requires that cells sense intracellular pathogens. In their Review, Shao and colleagues describe mechanisms for the recognition of intracellular lipopolysaccharide and its essential role in responses to Gram-negative bacteria.

    • Vijay A. K. Rathinam
    • , Yue Zhao
    •  & Feng Shao
  • Review Article |

    The skin and intestine are unique environments at the front line of the immune system. Powrie and colleagues review the distinctive adaptations acquired by regulatory T cells at these barrier surfaces.

    • Natasha Whibley
    • , Andrea Tucci
    •  & Fiona Powrie
  • Review Article |

    Screaton and colleagues discuss the role of the adaptive immune response against flaviviruses in protection and pathogenesis, with emphasis on cross-reactive T cell and antibody responses.

    • Jose Luis Slon Campos
    • , Juthathip Mongkolsapaya
    •  & Gavin R. Screaton
  • Review Article |

    Sok and Burton highlight recent developments in the discovery and application of antibodies able to neutralize diverse isolates of HIV, known as ‘broadly neutralizing antibodies’.

    • Devin Sok
    •  & Dennis R. Burton
  • Review Article |

    Song and Colonna provide an overview of the common microglial response to neurodegeneration and discuss insights from mouse models and the study of human disease-associated genes.

    • Wilbur M. Song
    •  & Marco Colonna
  • Review Article |

    He and Wang review the immunological functions of RIP kinases in inflammatory responses to microbial infection and tissue injury, as well as their potential roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease and aging.

    • Sudan He
    •  & Xiaodong Wang
  • Review Article |

    The immunoproteasome and thymoproteasome are specialized proteasomes operating within the immune system. In this Review, Murata et al. recount the discovery of the immunoproteasome and thymoproteasome and delve into their function, context in evolution and relation to human disease.

    • Shigeo Murata
    • , Yousuke Takahama
    • , Masanori Kasahara
    •  & Keiji Tanaka
  • Review Article |

    Romagnani and colleagues discuss the specific recognition of viral antigens and peptides by NK cells and its implications for the composition of the NK cell repertoire and the selection of viral variants.

    • Quirin Hammer
    • , Timo Rückert
    •  & Chiara Romagnani
  • Review Article |

    The thymus has a critical role in the establishment of appropriately educated and self-tolerant T cells. In their Focus Review, Cheng and Anderson discuss the most recent insights into how the thymus establishes self-tolerance.

    • Mickie Cheng
    •  & Mark S. Anderson
  • Review Article |

    Treg cells have a critical role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. In this Focus Review, Dominguez-Villar and Hafler describe how the instability and plasticity of Treg cells can contribute to the breakdown of tolerance and lead to autoimmune disease.

    • Margarita Dominguez-Villar
    •  & David A. Hafler
  • Review Article |

    The rates of autoimmune disease are rising more rapidly than can be explained by changes in genetics. In this Focus Review, Verdu and Danska describe the dietary and microbial influences on type 1 diabetes and draw comparisons with celiac disease.

    • Elena F. Verdu
    •  & Jayne S. Danska
  • Review Article |

    In this Focus Review, Bar-Or and colleagues discuss the latest evidence that B cells play an important antibody-independent role in multiple sclerosis and the prospects this holds for therapeutic intervention.

    • Rui Li
    • , Kristina R. Patterson
    •  & Amit Bar-Or
  • Review Article |

    Primary liver cancer, of which hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form, is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Heikenwalder and colleagues review the important inflammatory component underlying hepatocellular carcinoma and consider potential directions for therapy.

    • Marc Ringelhan
    • , Dominik Pfister
    • , Tracy O’Connor
    • , Eli Pikarsky
    •  & Mathias Heikenwalder
  • Review Article |

    Gabrilovich and colleagues review the origin and nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, as well as their distinctive features and biological roles in cancer, infectious diseases, autoimmunity, obesity and pregnancy.

    • Filippo Veglia
    • , Michela Perego
    •  & Dmitry Gabrilovich
  • Review Article |

    Lambris and colleagues discuss new and previously unanticipated functions of complement and how these affect immunity and disease pathogenesis.

    • George Hajishengallis
    • , Edimara S Reis
    • , Dimitrios C Mastellos
    • , Daniel Ricklin
    •  & John D Lambris
  • Review Article |

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being increasingly appreciated as important regulators of gene expression. Chang and colleagues review the roles identified for lncRNAs in the immune system and discuss models for how lncRNAs mediate their effects.

    • Y Grace Chen
    • , Ansuman T Satpathy
    •  & Howard Y Chang
  • Review Article |

    Magarian Blander and colleagues review the effects of the microbiome on innate and adaptive immunological players and how microbiota-derived bioactive molecules affect inflammation and the host response to infection, vaccination and cancer.

    • J Magarian Blander
    • , Randy S Longman
    • , Iliyan D Iliev
    • , Gregory F Sonnenberg
    •  & David Artis
  • Review Article |

    Kroemer and colleagues discuss the mechanisms through which nutrition modulates metabolic, microbial and neuroendocrine circuitries that affect cancer development and the response to treatment.

    • Laurence Zitvogel
    • , Federico Pietrocola
    •  & Guido Kroemer
  • Review Article |

    Autoimmunity can arise when tolerance mechanisms break down. Theofilopoulos and colleagues review how loss of peripheral tolerance, often driven by innate nucleic-acid sensors, leads to the activation of autoreactive lymphocytes that underlie many autoimmune diseases.

    • Argyrios N Theofilopoulos
    • , Dwight H Kono
    •  & Roberto Baccala
  • Review Article |

    Davis and colleagues review systems-biology approaches in immunology as a powerful means of understanding the immune system as a whole.

    • Mark M Davis
    • , Cristina M Tato
    •  & David Furman
  • Review Article |

    Silva-Santos and colleagues review the activation and pathophysiological functions of γδ17 T cells during inflammatory responses.

    • Pedro H Papotto
    • , Julie C Ribot
    •  & Bruno Silva-Santos
  • Review Article |

    Although interleukin 17 (IL-17) has modest activity on its own, it has a substantial impact in immunity through its synergistic action with other factors and its self-sustaining feedback loop. Veldhoen discusses the role of IL-17 during infections.

    • Marc Veldhoen
  • Review Article |

    O’Neill and colleagues review the role of mitochondria dynamics and energetics in immunity and inflammation, in innate and adaptive immune cells.

    • Evanna L Mills
    • , Beth Kelly
    •  & Luke A J O'Neill
  • Review Article |

    O'Shea and colleagues review recent advances in Jak–STAT biology, focusing on immune cell function, disease etiology and therapeutic intervention, as well as broader principles of gene regulation and signal-dependent transcription factors.

    • Alejandro V Villarino
    • , Yuka Kanno
    •  & John J O'Shea
  • Review Article |

    Microglia are by far the best-characterized macrophages in the CNS, but non-parenchymal populations, such as those found in the meninges, are being increasingly studied. Prinz et al. review the ontogeny and functions of both parenchymal macrophages and non-parenchymal macrophages the CNS.

    • Marco Prinz
    • , Daniel Erny
    •  & Nora Hagemeyer
  • Review Article |

    Engelhardt and colleagues review barriers separating blood from CSF and CNS parenchyma, how pathways draining solutes from CNS to lymph nodes exclude trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and how intravital microscopy has influenced debate on immune privilege of the CNS.

    • Britta Engelhardt
    • , Peter Vajkoczy
    •  & Roy O Weller
  • Review Article |

    Epithelial cells of the gut are heavily glycosylated. Kiyono and colleagues review the evidence for the importance of this glycosylation to immunity, host–microbiome interactions and immunopathology.

    • Yoshiyuki Goto
    • , Satoshi Uematsu
    •  & Hiroshi Kiyono
  • Review Article |

    There is now a major effort to fully exploit the anti-tumor properties of NK cells in the clinic. In this Review, Smyth and colleagues detail recent advances in NK cell–based immunotherapies and discuss the advantages and limitations of these strategies.

    • Camille Guillerey
    • , Nicholas D Huntington
    •  & Mark J Smyth