News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Characterization of the self antigens that neonatal regulatory T cells recognize reveals dramatic effects of age and inflammation on the fate of T cells developing in the thymus.

    • Oscar C. Salgado
    •  & Kristin A. Hogquist
  • News & Views |

    Analysis of the whole-genome transcriptional activity of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells demonstrates distinct profiles associated with natural control of HIV replication, as well as dysfunctional phenotypes that persist even after effective antiretroviral therapy.

    • Celine Gubser
    • , Matthew C Pitman
    •  & Sharon R. Lewin
  • News & Views |

    A new report shows that upregulation of the receptor TREM1 on macrophages and neutrophils, dependent on the adrenergic nervous system, links stroke to systemic inflammation and gut barrier dysfunction, which result in bacterial translocation and exacerbation of neurological damage.

    • Francesco Roselli
    •  & Markus Huber-Lang
  • News & Views |

    Epigenetic and transcriptional analyses of B cell subsets from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reveal extensive effects of the disease environment and identify previously unknown connections and regulators of DN2 B cells and ABC-like cells.

    • Alessandra B. Pernis
    •  & Lionel B. Ivashkiv
  • News & Views |

    Novel single-cell profiling technologies have delineated the cellular and molecular landscapes that dominate the joints in rheumatoid arthritis and the skin and kidneys in systemic lupus erythematosus, shedding light on potential pathogenic mechanisms.

    • Navin Varadarajan
    •  & Chandra Mohan
  • News & Views |

    Although the molecular basis of most disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms has remained elusive, an HIV-1 viral load–associated polymorphism (rs1015164) has been identified that marks expression of a long non-coding RNA that regulates the co-receptor CCR5 and thereby influences infection of CD4+ T cells.

    • Sanath Kumar Janaka
    •  & David T. Evans
  • News & Views |

    The cytokine IL-15 controls the homeostasis and activation of CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells. A new study reveals the deubiquitinase Otub1 to be a negative regulator of IL-15 signaling, with important consequences for autoimmunity and anti-cancer immunity.

    • Paul N. Moynagh
  • News & Views |

    The transcription factor Bhlhe40 is required for the homeostatic proliferation of peritoneal macrophages and their expansion during type 2 immunity.

    • Carla V. Rothlin
    •  & Sourav Ghosh
  • News & Views |

    A novel feedback loop coordinated by germinal center–specific signaling via the kinase AKT activates negative regulators of upstream BCR signaling to attenuate responses to antigen stimulation.

    • Julie Zikherman
  • News & Views |

    Expression of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and IL-35 by tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells drives exhaustion of intratumoral CD8+ T cells through a common pathway dependent on the transcription factor BLIMP-1.

    • Martina Damo
    •  & Nikhil S. Joshi
  • News & Views |

    The cytokine IL-17 augments metabolism in fibroblastic reticular cells in lymph nodes, which enhances their proliferation and survival to support B cell responses during autoimmunity.

    • Scott N. Mueller
  • News & Views |

    The transcription factor PU.1 is not needed for the maintenance of neutrophil identity but is essential for the prevention of excessive tissue damage due to a prolonged immune response. PU.1 restrains the activation of neutrophils by antagonizing the AP-1 transcription factor JunB.

    • Richard Dahl
  • News & Views |

    The N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA-modification pathway affects numerous aspects of immune responses. A new study now demonstrates that m6A modification of transcripts encoding lysosomal proteases limits the efficiency of tumor-antigen cross-presentation.

    • Marianne Burbage
    • , Marine Gros
    •  & Sebastian Amigorena
  • News & Views |

    The mechanisms by which the cytokine IFN-λ regulates adaptive immune responses are poorly understood. A new study now reveals a novel IFN-λ-mediated signal-transmission system that enhances immunity after infection of the mouse respiratory tract with influenza virus.

    • Stefan F. Wieland
    •  & Markus H. Heim
  • News & Views |

    Recent studies indicate that macrophages utilize NAD+-biosynthetic pathways to control inflammation and cell survival during the immune response and aging.

    • Leah K. Billingham
    •  & Navdeep S. Chandel
  • News & Views |

    Inflammasomes have been reported to function in a wide variety of innate immune cells; however, their activity now seems to be more restricted than previously thought.

    • Pierre Guermonprez
    •  & Julie Helft
  • News & Views |

    Members of the SLAM family of receptors promote the progression of invariant natural killer T cells through the thymic maturation process and facilitate proper host responses to exogenous lipid antigen through the recruitment and activity of SAP–Fyn and SHP-1, respectively.

    • Shankar S. Iyer
    • , Yu-Hwa Huang
    •  & Richard S. Blumberg
  • News & Views |

    Combined immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade (anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1) and the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin reveals the existence of a T cell– and eosinophil-targeted immunotherapy approach for solid tumors.

    • Ariel Munitz
    •  & Simon Patrick Hogan
  • News & Views |

    A multivalent vaccine that presents diverse influenza virus subtype H1 hemagglutinins on its surface induces broadly neutralizing antibodies in an animal model by displaying conserved epitopes at higher density than strain-specific epitopes.

    • Florian Krammer
  • News & Views |

    The transition of the fetus from the womb to the external world represents an extraordinary challenge. The generation of memory T cells before birth may serve an important role in preparation for this fundamental transition.

    • Ai Ing Lim
    • , Oliver J. Harrison
    •  & Yasmine Belkaid
  • News & Views |

    The zinc transporter ZIP7 positively regulates signaling via the BCR during early B cell development in mice and humans. Impairment of ZIP7 function results in a novel primary immunodeficiency.

    • Toshiyuki Fukada
    • , Shintaro Hojyo
    • , Takafumi Hara
    •  & Teruhisa Takagishi
  • News & Views |

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, decreased abundance of the N-myristoyltransferase NMT1 in CD4+ T cells prevents N-myristoylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK and its localization to the lysosomal membrane, which leads to increased activation of the metabolic checkpoint kinase complex mTORC1 and proinflammatory T cell phenotypes.

    • David K. Finlay
  • News & Views |

    A new target for controlling T cell responses adds to the list of key processes dependent on the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, which is essential for neurotransmitter and nitric-oxide production and pain control.

    • Andrew L. Mellor
    •  & Lei Huang
  • News & Views |

    The N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA-modification pathway substantially affects the outcome of viral infection. Studies now show that m6A modification of transcripts encoding type I interferons limits the duration of anti-viral signaling.

    • Charles R. Hesser
    •  & Britt A. Glaunsinger
  • News & Views |

    Innate lymphoid cell–derived cytokine IL-13 promotes the maintenance of intestinal stem cells through stabilization of β-catenin. The circular RNA circPan3 regulates mRNA encoding the cytokine receptor subunit IL-13Rα and downstream IL-13 signaling to stabilize the β-catenin pathway in intestinal stem cells.

    • Frank Soveg
    • , Jakob von Moltke
    •  & Ram Savan
  • News & Views |

    Activation of STING requires its translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi to vesicles, but the mechanisms that control its localization have been unclear. The ER calcium sensor STIM1 acts as an ER-retention factor that anchors STING on the ER and limits STING signaling.

    • Jianjun Wu
    •  & Nan Yan
  • News & Views |

    The resolution of inflammation is a protective response. The identification and characterization of new players that boost this response might inform the development of novel therapies for non-resolving inflammatory diseases.

    • Gabrielle Fredman
  • News & Views |

    The stress-granule protein G3BP1 forms a high-molecular-weight protein complex with the sensor cGAS and enhances its detection of cytoplasmic DNA.

    • Caroline Wiser
    • , Byungil Kim
    •  & Manuel Ascano
  • News & Views |

    The histone demethylase LSD1 partners with the transcription factor BCL6 to initiate the formation of germinal centers.

    • Kim L. Good-Jacobson
  • News & Views |

    While important evidence for the role of myeloid cells in myocardial infarction has accumulated in recent years, single-cell transcriptomics fully delineates the functional heterogeneity of the myeloid cell compartment.

    • Joachim L. Schultze
  • News & Views |

    The mechanism of action of the lymphocyte checkpoint protein LAG-3 was always rather mysterious. It now seems to operate at least in part by recognizing and suppressing responses to stable complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II.

    • Yuan Lui
    •  & Simon J. Davis
  • News & Views |

    Transcription factors orchestrate stage-specific gene expression during development. Two such factors, TCF-1 and HEB, collaborate at the protein and genomic levels to regulate gene expression in developing thymocytes.

    • Christelle Harly
    •  & Thomas Ciucci
  • News & Views |

    A new model proposes that an applied force allows the co-receptor CD8 and the kinase Lck to selectively stabilize TCR interactions with negatively selecting ligands, but not those with positively selecting ligands, during the negative selection of self-reactive thymocytes.

    • Omer Dushek
    •  & Michael L. Dustin
  • News & Views |

    Acidic microenvironments induced by highly glycolytic tumor cells promote the noninflammatory polarization of tumor-associated macrophages, which leads to immunoevasion.

    • Hiroki Sekine
    • , Masayuki Yamamoto
    •  & Hozumi Motohashi
  • News & Views |

    An antibody to dengue virus that lies flat on its target, neutralizes the virus and also prevents antibody-dependent enhancement of infection is now identified.

    • Shee-Mei Lok
  • News & Views |

    Deposition of fibrin in the brain and central nervous system occurs after injury or disease. This process unmasks a conserved cryptic epitope of fibrin that activates microglia; blocking this interaction can limit inflammation and neurotoxicity.

    • Roland Martin
  • News & Views |

    Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification that controls the abundance of γc cytokine receptor on mature T cells by a post-transcriptional mechanism.

    • Joo-Young Park
    •  & Jung-Hyun Park
  • News & Views |

    Studies of mice demonstrate a link between the female hormone estrogen and protection against bacteremia and sepsis through the induction of natural antibodies to Eshcerichia coli.

    • Joseph Chavarria-Smith
    • , Wouter L. W. Hazenbos
    •  & Menno van Lookeren Campagne
  • News & Views |

    Cell-type-specific regulation of gene expression by transcription factors is a fundamental principle of biology. New findings show that microRNA-mediated control of target-gene expression is also dependent on the cellular context.

    • Pengda Chen
    • , Kunyu Liao
    •  & Changchun Xiao
  • News & Views |

    New insights into how NK cells are educated by the receptor NKG2D, which leads to effects on another receptor, NCR1, raise interesting questions about why so many receptors are linked to the education of NK cells.

    • André Veillette
    •  & Yan Lu
  • News & Views |

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that produce the cytokine IL-5 are found in lung, gut, fat and skin tissues. New findings indicate that ILC2s in different tissues selectively express distinct functional cytokine receptors for cell activation in response to the local environment.

    • Jinfang Zhu
  • News & Views |

    PI3Kδ regulates adaptive immune thresholds and limits immunity to endogenous microbiota.

    • Domenick E. Kennedy
    •  & Marcus R. Clark
  • News & Views |

    Immune responses have the potential to induce life-threatening conditions. A novel multi-system pathway in which neuroendocrine signaling induces expression of the checkpoint receptor PD-1 on NK cells is an important mechanism for protection against cytokine-mediated disease during viral infection.

    • Christine A. Biron
  • News & Views |

    In the current issue of Nature Immunology, Casanova and colleagues demonstrate that humans (and mouse models) with autosomal-recessive SPPL2a deficiency have a severe defect in conventional dendritic cell 2 survival and production of IL-12 and IL-23, and diminished IFN-γ secretion by mycobacterium-specific memory T cells, thus resulting in increased susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases.

    • Sergio D. Rosenzweig
  • News & Views |

    Single-cell transcriptomic analysis shows that B cells experience a continuum of cyclic transitional states during the germinal center (GC) reaction; this pattern is lost in GC-derived follicular lymphoma cells, which seem to be heterogeneous and desynchronized.

    • Katia Basso
  • News & Views |

    Chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus impairs B cell antigen receptor signaling via a newly described mechanism of inhibitory signaling mediated by IgG3 and the IgG Fc receptor FcRγIIb (CD32b).

    • Amanda E. Agazio
    • , Roberta Pelanda
    •  & Raul M. Torres
  • News & Views |

    T cell activation is ‘digital’: exhaustive single-cell analysis shows that only the proportion of cells that cross the activation threshold is reduced when the affinity of the TCR for its ligand is reduced.

    • Renu Balyan
    • , Joanna Brzostek
    •  & Nicholas R. J. Gascoigne