Browse Articles

  • Article |

    Environmental cues instruct cell fate during hematopoiesis. Igarashi and colleagues show that the transcription factors Bach1 and Bach2 promote erythropoiesis and suppress myelopoiesis. Infection and inflammatory signals suppress Bach expression, which results in anemia.

    • Hiroki Kato
    • , Ari Itoh-Nakadai
    • , Mitsuyo Matsumoto
    • , Yusho Ishii
    • , Miki Watanabe-Matsui
    • , Masatoshi Ikeda
    • , Risa Ebina-Shibuya
    • , Yuki Sato
    • , Masahiro Kobayashi
    • , Hironari Nishizawa
    • , Katsushi Suzuki
    • , Akihiko Muto
    • , Tohru Fujiwara
    • , Yasuhito Nannya
    • , Luca Malcovati
    • , Mario Cazzola
    • , Seishi Ogawa
    • , Hideo Harigae
    •  & Kazuhiko Igarashi
  • Review Article |

    Song and Colonna provide an overview of the common microglial response to neurodegeneration and discuss insights from mouse models and the study of human disease-associated genes.

    • Wilbur M. Song
    •  & Marco Colonna
  • Article |

    The kinase NIK activates a noncanonical NF-κB2 signaling pathway. Shao-Cong Sun and colleagues show that conditional loss of NIK in dendritic cells alters gut microbiome composition and TH17 cell responses, as a result of reduced expression of IL-23, pIgR and fecal IgA transcytosis.

    • Zuliang Jie
    • , Jin-Young Yang
    • , Meidi Gu
    • , Hui Wang
    • , Xiaoping Xie
    • , Yanchuan Li
    • , Ting Liu
    • , Lele Zhu
    • , Jianhong Shi
    • , Lingyun Zhang
    • , Xiaofei Zhou
    • , Donghyun Joo
    • , Hans D. Brightbill
    • , Yingzi Cong
    • , Daniel Lin
    • , Xuhong Cheng
    •  & Shao-Cong Sun
  • Article |

    Kubes and colleagues describe the presence in females of estrogen-driven, innate antibodies against specific oligosaccharides in EPEC that are maternally transferrable to offspring in mice and humans.

    • Zhutian Zeng
    • , Bas G. J. Surewaard
    • , Connie H. Y. Wong
    • , Christopher Guettler
    • , Bjӧrn Petri
    • , Regula Burkhard
    • , Madeleine Wyss
    • , Hervé Le Moual
    • , Rebekah Devinney
    • , Graham C. Thompson
    • , Jaime Blackwood
    • , Ari R. Joffe
    • , Kathy D. McCoy
    • , Craig N. Jenne
    •  & Paul Kubes
  • News & Views |

    Studies of mice demonstrate a link between the female hormone estrogen and protection against bacteremia and sepsis through the induction of natural antibodies to Eshcerichia coli.

    • Joseph Chavarria-Smith
    • , Wouter L. W. Hazenbos
    •  & Menno van Lookeren Campagne
  • Article |

    lncRNAs can regulate immune responses at a number of levels. Song and colleagues demonstrate that the lncRNA NKILA is expressed by tumor-associated cytotoxic T cells, and this predisposes them to activation-induced cell death and escape of tumors from immunologically mediated destruction.

    • Di Huang
    • , Jianing Chen
    • , Linbin Yang
    • , Qian Ouyang
    • , Jiaqian Li
    • , Liyan Lao
    • , Jinghua Zhao
    • , Jiang Liu
    • , Yiwen Lu
    • , Yue Xing
    • , Fei Chen
    • , Fengxi Su
    • , Herui Yao
    • , Qiang Liu
    • , Shicheng Su
    •  & Erwei Song
  • Article |

    Polić and colleagues show that the activating receptor NKG2D specifically sets the activation threshold for the activating receptor NCR1, providing a mechanism distinct from previously known mechanisms of NK cell education.

    • Vedrana Jelenčić
    • , Marko Šestan
    • , Inga Kavazović
    • , Maja Lenartić
    • , Sonja Marinović
    • , Tim D. Holmes
    • , Michaela Prchal-Murphy
    • , Berislav Lisnić
    • , Veronika Sexl
    • , Yenan T. Bryceson
    • , Felix M. Wensveen
    •  & Bojan Polić
  • News & Views |

    Cell-type-specific regulation of gene expression by transcription factors is a fundamental principle of biology. New findings show that microRNA-mediated control of target-gene expression is also dependent on the cellular context.

    • Pengda Chen
    • , Kunyu Liao
    •  & Changchun Xiao
  • News & Views |

    New insights into how NK cells are educated by the receptor NKG2D, which leads to effects on another receptor, NCR1, raise interesting questions about why so many receptors are linked to the education of NK cells.

    • André Veillette
    •  & Yan Lu
  • News & Views |

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that produce the cytokine IL-5 are found in lung, gut, fat and skin tissues. New findings indicate that ILC2s in different tissues selectively express distinct functional cytokine receptors for cell activation in response to the local environment.

    • Jinfang Zhu
  • Article |

    TH17 cells contribute to anti-fungal and anti-bacterial adaptive immune responses. Sallusto and colleagues show that the transcription factor c-Maf has an immunoregulatory role in directing gene expression and tissue residency in human IL-10+ TH17 cell subsets.

    • Dominik Aschenbrenner
    • , Mathilde Foglierini
    • , David Jarrossay
    • , Dan Hu
    • , Howard L. Weiner
    • , Vijay K. Kuchroo
    • , Antonio Lanzavecchia
    • , Samuele Notarbartolo
    •  & Federica Sallusto
  • Article |

    The receptor TLR3 is essential for effective responses to herpes simplex virus type 1. Miyake and colleagues demonstrate that a neuron- and astrocyte-intrinsic pathway of TLR3 and the metabolic checkpoint kinase complex mTORC2 is needed to prevent fulminant infection with this virus and encephalitis.

    • Ryota Sato
    • , Akihisa Kato
    • , Takahiko Chimura
    • , Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh
    • , Takuma Shibata
    • , Yusuke Murakami
    • , Ryutaro Fukui
    • , Kaiwen Liu
    • , Yun Zhang
    • , Jun Arii
    • , Ge-Hong Sun-Wada
    • , Yoh Wada
    • , Tsuneo Ikenoue
    • , Glen N. Barber
    • , Toshiya Manabe
    • , Yasushi Kawaguchi
    •  & Kensuke Miyake
  • Article |

    Locksley et al. show tissue-specific imprinting dictates the activating receptors ILC2s express, even in germ-free mice. Skin ILC2s are preferentially activated by IL-18, and IL-18 contributes to inflammation in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis.

    • Roberto R. Ricardo-Gonzalez
    • , Steven J. Van Dyken
    • , Christoph Schneider
    • , Jinwoo Lee
    • , Jesse C. Nussbaum
    • , Hong-Erh Liang
    • , Dedeepya Vaka
    • , Walter L. Eckalbar
    • , Ari B. Molofsky
    • , David J. Erle
    •  & Richard M. Locksley
  • Review Article |

    He and Wang review the immunological functions of RIP kinases in inflammatory responses to microbial infection and tissue injury, as well as their potential roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease and aging.

    • Sudan He
    •  & Xiaodong Wang
  • Article |

    Patients who express a hyperactive mutant of the kinase PI3K exhibit defective humoral immunity. Preite et al. show that overactive PI3K leads to defective class-switched antigen-specific responses to immunization, despite augmented germinal-center formation and reactivity to commensal microbes and self antigens.

    • Silvia Preite
    • , Jennifer L. Cannons
    • , Andrea J. Radtke
    • , Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin
    • , Julio Gomez-Rodriguez
    • , Stefano Volpi
    • , Bonnie Huang
    • , Jun Cheng
    • , Nicholas Collins
    • , Julie Reilley
    • , Robin Handon
    • , Kerry Dobbs
    • , Lutfi Huq
    • , Indu Raman
    • , Chengsong Zhu
    • , Quan-Zhen Li
    • , Ming O. Li
    • , Stefania Pittaluga
    • , Gulbu Uzel
    • , Luigi D. Notarangelo
    • , Yasmine Belkaid
    • , Ronald N. Germain
    •  & Pamela L. Schwartzberg
  • Article |

    Primary immunodeficiency can predispose patients to mycobacterial disease. Casanova and colleagues identify novel human mutations in the enzyme SPPL2A that result in selective accumulation of CD74 in a dendritic cell subset and lead to their death and the failure to mount effective TH1 responses.

    • Xiao-Fei Kong
    • , Ruben Martinez-Barricarte
    • , James Kennedy
    • , Federico Mele
    • , Tomi Lazarov
    • , Elissa K. Deenick
    • , Cindy S. Ma
    • , Gaëlle Breton
    • , Kimberly B. Lucero
    • , David Langlais
    • , Aziz Bousfiha
    • , Caner Aytekin
    • , Janet Markle
    • , Céline Trouillet
    • , Fabienne Jabot-Hanin
    • , Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn
    • , Geetha Rao
    • , Capucine Picard
    • , Théo Lasseau
    • , Daniela Latorre
    • , Sophie Hambleton
    • , Caroline Deswarte
    • , Yuval Itan
    • , Katia Abarca
    • , Dewton Moraes-Vasconcelos
    • , Fatima Ailal
    • , Aydan Ikinciogullari
    • , Figen Dogu
    • , Ibtihal Benhsaien
    • , Alessandro Sette
    • , Laurent Abel
    • , Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis
    • , Bernd Schröder
    • , Michel C. Nussenzweig
    • , Kang Liu
    • , Frédéric Geissmann
    • , Stuart G. Tangye
    • , Philippe Gros
    • , Federica Sallusto
    • , Jacinta Bustamante
    •  & Jean-Laurent Casanova
  • News & Views |

    PI3Kδ regulates adaptive immune thresholds and limits immunity to endogenous microbiota.

    • Domenick E. Kennedy
    •  & Marcus R. Clark
  • News & Views |

    Immune responses have the potential to induce life-threatening conditions. A novel multi-system pathway in which neuroendocrine signaling induces expression of the checkpoint receptor PD-1 on NK cells is an important mechanism for protection against cytokine-mediated disease during viral infection.

    • Christine A. Biron
  • News & Views |

    In the current issue of Nature Immunology, Casanova and colleagues demonstrate that humans (and mouse models) with autosomal-recessive SPPL2a deficiency have a severe defect in conventional dendritic cell 2 survival and production of IL-12 and IL-23, and diminished IFN-γ secretion by mycobacterium-specific memory T cells, thus resulting in increased susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases.

    • Sergio D. Rosenzweig
  • Article |

    Cohesin is a chromatin-binding factor that interacts at CTCF motifs to organize chromatin looping domains. Merkenschlager and colleagues show that cohesin regulates the inducible expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages and HSPCs and in human AML.

    • Sergi Cuartero
    • , Felix D. Weiss
    • , Gopuraja Dharmalingam
    • , Ya Guo
    • , Elizabeth Ing-Simmons
    • , Silvia Masella
    • , Irene Robles-Rebollo
    • , Xiaolin Xiao
    • , Yi-Fang Wang
    • , Iros Barozzi
    • , Dounia Djeghloul
    • , Mariane T. Amano
    • , Henri Niskanen
    • , Enrico Petretto
    • , Robin D. Dowell
    • , Kikuë Tachibana
    • , Minna U. Kaikkonen
    • , Kim A. Nasmyth
    • , Boris Lenhard
    • , Gioacchino Natoli
    • , Amanda G. Fisher
    •  & Matthias Merkenschlager
  • Article |

    Circulating IgG3 increases in chronic HIV infection. Moir and colleagues describe a negative regulatory role of secreted IgG3 in response to chronic HIV infection through its action on nonconventional CD27 memory B cells.

    • Lela Kardava
    • , Haewon Sohn
    • , Christine Youn
    • , James W. Austin
    • , Wei Wang
    • , Clarisa M. Buckner
    • , J. Shawn Justement
    • , Valerie A. Melson
    • , Gwynne E. Roth
    • , Marissa A. Hand
    • , Kathleen R. Gittens
    • , Richard W. Kwan
    • , Michael C. Sneller
    • , Yuxing Li
    • , Tae-Wook Chun
    • , Peter D. Sun
    • , Susan K. Pierce
    •  & Susan Moir
  • News & Views |

    Single-cell transcriptomic analysis shows that B cells experience a continuum of cyclic transitional states during the germinal center (GC) reaction; this pattern is lost in GC-derived follicular lymphoma cells, which seem to be heterogeneous and desynchronized.

    • Katia Basso
  • Article |

    Nemazee and colleagues show that PLD3 and PLD4 are endolysosomal exonucleases that digest ingested nucleic acids and thereby prevent activation of endosomal TLRs. Mice that lack PLD3 and PLD4 develop autoinflammatory disease.

    • Amanda L. Gavin
    • , Deli Huang
    • , Christoph Huber
    • , Annica Mårtensson
    • , Virginie Tardif
    • , Patrick D. Skog
    • , Tanya R. Blane
    • , Therese C. Thinnes
    • , Kent Osborn
    • , Hayley S. Chong
    • , Farnaz Kargaran
    • , Phoebe Kimm
    • , Armen Zeitjian
    • , Rachel L. Sielski
    • , Megan Briggs
    • , Sebastian R. Schulz
    • , Alessandro Zarpellon
    • , Benjamin Cravatt
    • , Ee Shan Pang
    • , John Teijaro
    • , Juan Carlos de la Torre
    • , Meredith O’Keeffe
    • , Hubertus Hochrein
    • , Markus Damme
    • , Luc Teyton
    • , Brian R. Lawson
    •  & David Nemazee
  • Article |

    Human follicular lymphomas arise from germinal center B cells. Milpied and colleagues use single-cell transcriptomic analysis to show that follicular lymphoma cells lose synchronized gene-expression patterns that characterize normal germinal center B cells.

    • Pierre Milpied
    • , Iñaki Cervera-Marzal
    • , Marie-Laure Mollichella
    • , Bruno Tesson
    • , Gabriel Brisou
    • , Alexandra Traverse-Glehen
    • , Gilles Salles
    • , Lionel Spinelli
    •  & Bertrand Nadel
  • Review Article |

    The immunoproteasome and thymoproteasome are specialized proteasomes operating within the immune system. In this Review, Murata et al. recount the discovery of the immunoproteasome and thymoproteasome and delve into their function, context in evolution and relation to human disease.

    • Shigeo Murata
    • , Yousuke Takahama
    • , Masanori Kasahara
    •  & Keiji Tanaka
  • News & Views |

    Chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus impairs B cell antigen receptor signaling via a newly described mechanism of inhibitory signaling mediated by IgG3 and the IgG Fc receptor FcRγIIb (CD32b).

    • Amanda E. Agazio
    • , Roberta Pelanda
    •  & Raul M. Torres
  • Article |

    Natural killer (NK) cells can acquire ‘memory’ signatures. Sun and colleagues examine the dynamic ATAC-seq and functional RNA-seq changes observed upon generation of NK cell memory and show distinct roles for transcription factors STAT1 and STAT4.

    • Colleen M. Lau
    • , Nicholas M. Adams
    • , Clair D. Geary
    • , Orr-El Weizman
    • , Moritz Rapp
    • , Yuri Pritykin
    • , Christina S. Leslie
    •  & Joseph C. Sun
  • Article |

    Signaling via the cytokine IL-9 receptor regulates humoral recall responses. Kitamura and colleagues report that IL-9 triggers memory B cells to proliferate and terminally differentiate into antibody-secreting cells rather than re-entering germinal centers.

    • Shogo Takatsuka
    • , Hiroyuki Yamada
    • , Kei Haniuda
    • , Hiroshi Saruwatari
    • , Marina Ichihashi
    • , Jean-Christophe Renauld
    •  & Daisuke Kitamura
  • Review Article |

    Romagnani and colleagues discuss the specific recognition of viral antigens and peptides by NK cells and its implications for the composition of the NK cell repertoire and the selection of viral variants.

    • Quirin Hammer
    • , Timo Rückert
    •  & Chiara Romagnani