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  • Why some individuals ‘resist’ infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been an enigma. Enriched T cell phenotypes have now been linked to ‘resistance’ to Mtb infection and disease across multiple cohorts.

    • Jason R. Andrews
    News & Views
  • The G protein Gα13 is frequently lost in germinal center (GC) B cell-derived lymphomas. Mice that lack Gα13 exhibit increased proliferation of GC B cells in gut-draining lymph nodes where they go on to develop lymphomas. Dietary glutamine drives the proliferation of mucosal GC B cells that lack Gα13, potentially explaining the gut tropism of these lymphomas.

    Research Briefing
  • Immunological imprinting early in life has been proposed to influence the risk of infection by influenza viruses later on — but hard evidence for this has been lacking. A new study now shows how this can occur for influenza B viruses.

    • Isaac C. L. Chow
    • Sook-San Wong
    News & Views
  • We constructed a humanized (THX) mouse by grafting non-γ-irradiated, genetically myeloablated immunodeficient mouse neonates with human cord blood CD34+ cells, followed by 17β-estradiol hormonal conditioning. THX mice develop a human lymphoid and myeloid immune system, mount mature antibacterial and antiviral neutralizing antibody responses, and are amenable to develop lupus autoimmunity.

    Research Briefing
  • Muppidi and colleagues show that loss of Gα13 drives B cell lymphomas preferentially in the mesenteric lymph nodes. They find that Gα13 is required to counteract mTORC1 and Myc signaling that is driven by the availability of dietary glutamine.

    • Hang T. Nguyen
    • Moyi Li
    • Jagan R. Muppidi
    ArticleOpen Access
  • We performed transcriptional and chromatin accessibility profiling of TH17 cells to distinguish the pathways that regulate pathogenic versus non-pathogenic TH17 cell subsets. We show that TH17 cell functional heterogeneity is linked to distinct regulatory programs that are shared between TH17 cells and other CD4+ T cell states. BACH2 was identified as a key regulator of TH17 cell-mediated autoimmunity.

    Research Briefing
  • In this study, Uldrich and colleagues describe the crystal structure of the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell antigen receptor (TCR) interacting with BTN2A1 and demonstrate the existence of a second ligand that co-binds to a distinct epitope on Vγ9Vδ2 TCR. Using these data, the authors suggest a model of Vγ9Vδ2 TCR activation in which BTN2A1 and BTN3A1 are tethered to each other at the steady state, and must disengage to allow TCR binding.

    • Thomas S. Fulford
    • Caroline Soliman
    • Adam P. Uldrich
  • The EMBO workshop ‘Pathogen Immunity and Signaling’, held in San Servolo, Italy, from 8 to 12 April 2024, aimed to discuss cutting-edge advances in the understanding of antimicrobial defense mechanisms.

    • Mads Gyrd-Hansen
    • Anna Kajaste-Rudnitski
    • Matteo Iannacone
    Meeting Report
  • The thymus harbors a complex constitutively active inflammatory network with innate-like T cells representing one of its central nodes. Here, the authors show that these cells can induce tolerance to inflammation-associated self-antigens, a class of molecules that otherwise largely mirrors the spatial and temporal distribution of pathogen-derived antigens.

    • Yuanyuan You
    • Josefine Dunst
    • Taras Kreslavsky
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Our study shows that each stimulation experienced by memory B cells is epigenetically recorded in an IRF4-dependent manner, which determines the relative levels of BLIMP1 and BACH2 in B cells, and in turn dictates the likelihood that a memory B cell enters a germinal center or becomes a plasma cell after re-stimulation.

    Research Briefing
  • Extrafollicular and germinal center reactions are considered to represent sequential phases of a primary B cell response. A study now demonstrates the ability of autocrine IL-12 to promote extrafollicular differentiation into plasmablasts, while inhibiting germinal center responses.

    • Iñaki Sanz
    News & Views
  • Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) exhibit remarkable plasticity, which makes using definitive markers to distinguish non-cytotoxic ILC1s and NK cells across different tissues difficult. New research now shows how the tissue microenvironments imprint diverse phenotypes that result in ILC1s and NK cells imitating each other.

    • M. Zeeshan Chaudhry
    • Gabrielle T. Belz
    News & Views
  • Qi and colleagues generate reporter mice that can track the stimulation history of individual B cells, a record epigenetically stored as progressive chromatin changes. This recording system revealed that the balance of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1) to BTB domain and CNC homolog 2 (BACH2) predicts the fate of memory B cells upon recall challenge.

    • Wen Shao
    • Yifeng Wang
    • Hai Qi