Volume 8 Issue 8, August 2015

Volume 8 Issue 8

The role of static versus dynamic stresses in earthquake clusters is unclear. Analysis of earthquakes triggered by a dyke intrusion at an Icelandic volcano unambiguously demonstrates that static stresses are important for earthquake clustering. The image shows the Holuhraun fissure eruption in Iceland on 2 September 2014.

Letter p629

IMAGE: BOB WHITE

COVER DESIGN: DAVID SHAND

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Reforms in science teaching are building a stronger, more flexible student population ready to face the challenges of the future. We must remove the barriers that prevent these talented students from entering the geosciences.

Correspondence

Commentaries

  • Commentary |

    Increased efforts in recruiting minority students have not proven to be enough to address the lack of diversity in the geosciences. A collaborative mentoring culture is needed to permanently change the make-up of our field.

    • Rebecca Haacker
  • Commentary |

    The geosciences benefit from diverse student perspectives and backgrounds, but the field-based learning requirements pose barriers to students with disabilities. If carefully designed, fieldwork can be made accessible while still meeting expectations of academic rigour.

    • Brett Gilley
    • , Chris Atchison
    • , Anthony Feig
    •  & Alison Stokes

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Anthropogenic climate change alters the risk of some extreme weather events. High-resolution computer simulations suggest that Black Sea warming made the devastating 2012 Krymsk flood possible — a virtually impossible event just 30 years ago.

    • Friederike E. L. Otto
  • News & Views |

    On 25 April 2015 northern Nepal shifted up to 7 m southward and Kathmandu was raised by 1 m. The causal earthquake failed to fully rupture the main fault beneath the Himalaya and hence a large earthquake appears to be inevitable in Nepal's future.

    • Roger Bilham
  • News & Views |

    Antarctic Ice Sheet change during the last glacial cycle is unclear. The timing of moraine development in the Ross basin suggests that the ice sheet reached maximum thickness under the warming temperatures of the last termination.

    • Jeffrey Evans

Perspective

Progress Article

Letters

  • Letter |

    NASA’s Curiosity rover detected light-toned rocks along its traverse on Mars. Geochemical data suggest that the rocks represent a diversity of silica-rich magmatic rock types that may be analogous to Earth’s early continental crust.

    • V. Sautter
    • , M. J. Toplis
    • , R. C. Wiens
    • , A. Cousin
    • , C. Fabre
    • , O. Gasnault
    • , S. Maurice
    • , O. Forni
    • , J. Lasue
    • , A. Ollila
    • , J. C. Bridges
    • , N. Mangold
    • , S. Le Mouélic
    • , M. Fisk
    • , P.-Y. Meslin
    • , P. Beck
    • , P. Pinet
    • , L. Le Deit
    • , W. Rapin
    • , E. M. Stolper
    • , H. Newsom
    • , D. Dyar
    • , N. Lanza
    • , D. Vaniman
    • , S. Clegg
    •  & J. J. Wray
  • Letter |

    An extreme rainfall event occurred near the Black Sea town of Krymsk in July 2012. Simulations with a high-resolution weather forecasting model reveal that Black Sea surface warming has led to convective precipitation, which can bring strong rains.

    • Edmund P. Meredith
    • , Vladimir A. Semenov
    • , Douglas Maraun
    • , Wonsun Park
    •  & Alexander V. Chernokulsky
  • Letter |

    Chloride is abundant in oceans, but is relatively unreactive. Spectroscopic imaging reveals the presence of a chloride sink in organochlorine compounds that can be produced abiotically or by phytoplankton.

    • Alessandra C. Leri
    • , Lawrence M. Mayer
    • , Kathleen R. Thornton
    • , Paul A. Northrup
    • , Marisa R. Dunigan
    • , Katherine J. Ness
    •  & Austin B. Gellis

Articles

  • Article |

    Inland waters are important sources of greenhouse gases. Measurements over eight years suggest that African inland waters are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, equivalent to a quarter of the global land and ocean carbon sink.

    • Alberto V. Borges
    • , François Darchambeau
    • , Cristian R. Teodoru
    • , Trent R. Marwick
    • , Fredrick Tamooh
    • , Naomi Geeraert
    • , Fredrick O. Omengo
    • , Frédéric Guérin
    • , Thibault Lambert
    • , Cédric Morana
    • , Eric Okuku
    •  & Steven Bouillon
  • Article |

    Changes in Arctic sea ice volume are difficult to quantify. Five years of satellite data reveal a reduction in autumn sea ice volume in 2010–2012, but a sharp increase in 2013 and 2014, suggesting that ice volume can recover quickly.

    • Rachel L. Tilling
    • , Andy Ridout
    • , Andrew Shepherd
    •  & Duncan J. Wingham
  • Article |

    The frequency of extreme rainfall events over Greenland is predicted to increase as the climate warms. Observations from western Greenland suggest that intense late-summer rainfall in 2011 led to widespread ice-flow acceleration and runoff.

    • Samuel H. Doyle
    • , Alun Hubbard
    • , Roderik S. W. van de Wal
    • , Jason E. Box
    • , Dirk van As
    • , Kilian Scharrer
    • , Toby W. Meierbachtol
    • , Paul C. J. P. Smeets
    • , Joel T. Harper
    • , Emma Johansson
    • , Ruth H. Mottram
    • , Andreas B. Mikkelsen
    • , Frank Wilhelms
    • , Henry Patton
    • , Poul Christoffersen
    •  & Bryn Hubbard

Focus

  • Focus |

    Geoscience accessibility

    Reforms in science education are aiming to teach scientists the skills they need for the twenty-first century, as documented in a NatureSpecial (nature.com/stem). It is important, too, to provide opportunities in the sciences for bright students from all backgrounds. In this web focus, we present a collection of opinion pieces that introduce a range of ideas for breaking down barriers to engaging in the geociences.