Volume 8 Issue 11, November 2015

Volume 8 Issue 11

The fate of old, recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon in oceans is unclear. Field samples show that loss during circulation in hydrothermal vents can account for the 40-million-year lifetime of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon in oceans. The image shows hydrothermal fluids gushing from the crust into the deep North Atlantic Ocean at the Logatchev vent field.

Letter p856; News & Views p820

IMAGE: © MARUM — CENTER FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, UNIV. BREMEN

COVER DESIGN: DAVID SHAND

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    The restrictions and protocols surrounding the collection and storage of field samples in the Earth sciences are not always complied with. Offences must not be taken lightly.

Commentary

  • Commentary |

    Despite legislation to protect natural sites, rock outcrops are being damaged in the name of science. Scientists, funders and publishers must push forward a stronger code of ethics.

    • Rob Butler

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    In the United States, hurricanes have been causing more and more economic damage. A reanalysis of the disaster database using a statistical method that accounts for improvements in resilience opens the possibility that climate change has played a role.

    • Stéphane Hallegatte
  • News & Views |

    Little is known about the mechanisms that destroy the oldest organic molecules found in seawater. Field and laboratory observations suggest that these molecules are destroyed by the heat and pressure of deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

    • Steven R. Beaupré
  • News & Views |

    Ice streams transport ice rapidly from the interior of the Antarctic ice sheet to the coast. An analysis of surface flow convergence suggests that ice flow and geometry are intricately linked within these ice streams.

    • O. V. Sergienko
  • News & Views |

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake ruptured part of a fault that typically slips in slow, transient events. Laboratory experiments show that when fault rocks are sheared at slow, plate tectonic speeds, the fault can slip either quickly or slowly.

    • Heather M. Savage
  • News & Views |

    The Cambrian evolution of burrowing species is thought to have facilitated sediment mixing. However, sediment fabrics suggest that bioturbation remained insignificant until the appearance of more efficient sediment mixers in the Silurian.

    • Murray Gingras
    •  & Kurt Konhauser

Letters

  • Letter |

    Transient streaks that appear seasonally on Martian slopes are consistent with brine flows, but evidence of water or salts has been lacking. Analysis of spectral data reveals hydrated salts associated with the streaks, confirming a briny origin.

    • Lujendra Ojha
    • , Mary Beth Wilhelm
    • , Scott L. Murchie
    • , Alfred S. McEwen
    • , James J. Wray
    • , Jennifer Hanley
    • , Marion Massé
    •  & Matt Chojnacki
  • Letter |

    Some of the energy from photosynthesis is used in production of biomass. An analysis of plant productivity measurements reveals that site management is the main factor controlling how efficiently plants produce biomass, not fertility.

    • M. Campioli
    • , S. Vicca
    • , S. Luyssaert
    • , J. Bilcke
    • , E. Ceschia
    • , F. S. Chapin III
    • , P. Ciais
    • , M. Fernández-Martínez
    • , Y. Malhi
    • , M. Obersteiner
    • , D. Olefeldt
    • , D. Papale
    • , S. L. Piao
    • , J. Peñuelas
    • , P. F. Sullivan
    • , X. Wang
    • , T. Zenone
    •  & I. A. Janssens
  • Letter |

    Ice streams control the discharge of ice from the interior of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to the coast. A map of flow convergence suggests that ice-stream flow is subject to a mechanical regulation that limits flow-orthonormal strain rates.

    • Felix S. L. Ng
  • Letter |

    Microbes live under glaciers that have persisted for millions of years, without a clear energy supply. Analyses of crushed rocks suggest that interactions of glaciers with the rocks beneath can produce enough H2 to support methanogenic bacteria.

    • J. Telling
    • , E. S. Boyd
    • , N. Bone
    • , E. L. Jones
    • , M. Tranter
    • , J. W. MacFarlane
    • , P. G. Martin
    • , J. L. Wadham
    • , G. Lamarche-Gagnon
    • , M. L. Skidmore
    • , T. L. Hamilton
    • , E. Hill
    • , M. Jackson
    •  & D. A. Hodgson
  • Letter |

    The fate of old, recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon in oceans is unclear. Field samples show that loss during circulation in hydrothermal vents can account for the 40-million-year lifetime of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon in oceans.

    • Jeffrey A. Hawkes
    • , Pamela E. Rossel
    • , Aron Stubbins
    • , David Butterfield
    • , Douglas P. Connelly
    • , Eric P. Achterberg
    • , Andrea Koschinsky
    • , Valérie Chavagnac
    • , Christian T. Hansen
    • , Wolfgang Bach
    •  & Thorsten Dittmar
  • Letter |

    Mobile organisms first appeared in the fossil record prior to the Precambrian–Cambrian transition. Sediment textures indicate that the degree of sediment mixing by animal activity remained low for 120 million years following the transition.

    • Lidya G. Tarhan
    • , Mary L. Droser
    • , Noah J. Planavsky
    •  & David T. Johnston
  • Letter |

    Faults weaken during earthquakes. Analysis of the amount of energy released during earthquakes globally suggests that heat-induced pressurization of pore fluids can weaken faults during earthquakes of all sizes.

    • Robert C. Viesca
    •  & Dmitry I. Garagash

Articles

Corrigenda

Correction