Review Articles

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  • Climate change mitigation strategies based on biochar generation—and its application to agricultural soils—can effectively sequester carbon, although biogeochemical and economic trade-offs must be considered.

    • Johannes Lehmann
    • Annette Cowie
    • Thea Whitman
    Review Article
  • Phosphorus plays a dynamic and complex role in marine biogeochemistry, which is closely connected to carbon, nitrogen and metal cycling, according to a literature synthesis on recent advances in understandings of the marine phosphorus cycle.

    • Solange Duhamel
    • Julia M. Diaz
    • Emily M. Waggoner
    Review Article
  • A review of the organic carbon cycle explores the interactions between the Earth’s surface and deeper reservoirs, the expanding inorganic controls on the organic carbon cycle, and how these links have strengthened through geological time.

    • Matthieu E. Galvez
    • Woodward W. Fischer
    • Timothy I. Eglinton
    Review Article
  • Stressors such as large-scale damming, hydrological change, pollution, the introduction of non-native species and sediment mining are challenging the integrity and future of large rivers, according to a synthesis of the literature on the 32 biggest rivers.

    • Jim Best
    Review Article
  • Species richness in mountain environments is linked to mountain-building and climatic processes, an integration of geological, climatic, and biological datasets reveals.

    • Alexandre Antonelli
    • W. Daniel Kissling
    • Carina Hoorn
    Review Article
  • The abundance of microorganisms in the continental subsurface may have been overestimated, according to a review compilation of data from subsurface localities around the globe.

    • C. Magnabosco
    • L.-H. Lin
    • T. C. Onstott
    Review Article
  • Ocean oxygen loss in a warming world is strongly affected by biogeochemical processes that are not fully accounted for in ocean models, suggests a literature synthesis.

    • Andreas Oschlies
    • Peter Brandt
    • Sunke Schmidtko
    Review Article
  • Indicators of environmental and social footprints of international trade must inform assessments of progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals, suggests a synthesis of studies on the geospatial separation of consumption and production.

    • Thomas Wiedmann
    • Manfred Lenzen
    Review Article
  • The Cassini mission revealed the complex workings of Titan’s methane-based hydrologic cycle over a range of timescales, providing a potential window into the future of Earth and its water cycle.

    • Alexander G. Hayes
    • Ralph D. Lorenz
    • Jonathan I. Lunine
    Review Article
  • Climate sensitivity, the long-term warming due to doubled atmospheric CO2 levels, is estimated in the range of 1.5 °C to 4.5 °C. A synthesis of work reveals that whether the value falls at the high or low end, future emissions will have to be strongly limited.

    • Reto Knutti
    • Maria A. A. Rugenstein
    • Gabriele C. Hegerl
    Review Article