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  • Enhancing natural subsurface hydrogen production through water injection could make a substantial contribution to achieving the low-carbon energy transition that is required to limit global warming.

    • F. Osselin
    • C. Soulaine
    • M. Pichavant
  • A synthesis of recent work on marine carbon export fluxes finds that many processes that are key to understanding the effects of a warming climate on ocean carbon cycling are missing from current climate models.

    • Stephanie A. Henson
    • Charlotte Laufkötter
    • Emma L. Cavan
  • Continuous and discoverable observations of water potential could vastly improve understanding of biophysical processes throughout the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum and are achievable thanks to recent technological advances.

    • Kimberly A. Novick
    • Darren L. Ficklin
    • Jeffrey D. Wood
  • Agricultural nitrogen legacies are delaying improvements to water quality. Comprehensive management strategies that address legacy issues are needed to ensure better environmental outcomes.

    • Nandita B. Basu
    • Kimberly J. Van Meter
    • Søren Bøye Olsen
  • Geophysical and meteorological measurements by NASA’s InSight lander on Mars reveal a planet that is seismically active and provide information about the interior, surface and atmospheric workings of Mars.

    • W. Bruce Banerdt
    • Suzanne E. Smrekar
    • Mark Wieczorek
  • Glaciers in the Karakoram region, with their balanced or slightly positive mass balance, stand out from global glacier shrinkage, but this anomaly is not expected to persist in the long term, according to an overview of the possible explanations.

    • Daniel Farinotti
    • Walter W. Immerzeel
    • Amaury Dehecq
  • Different methods for determining global mean temperature change are preferable for different purposes, such as estimating carbon budgets versus consistency with the achievement of the Paris Agreement, argues a Perspective that outlines methodological choices and recommends decision pathways.

    • Katarzyna B. Tokarska
    • Carl-Friedrich Schleussner
    • Nathan P. Gillett
  • Recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer above Antarctica has not been straightforward, as a result of human activities and climate change. The recovery process might be delayed by up to decades if further mitigation actions are not taken.

    • Xuekun Fang
    • John A. Pyle
    • Ronald G. Prinn
  • Changes in calcification of marine organisms must be considered to explain the deepening of carbonate accumulation during ocean recovery from acidification events. According to a literature synthesis and modelling, dissolution of sedimentary carbonate is not sufficient to explain observations.

    • Bernard P. Boudreau
    • Jack J. Middelburg
    • Yiming Luo