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  • The northern and southern hemispheres of Mars are topographically distinct. Crustal thickness analyses and numerical simulations suggest a giant impact just after the crust differentiated 4.4 billion years ago as a plausible cause for this dichotomy.

    • H. J. Melosh
  • International Polar Year 2007–2009 had three predecessors 125, 75 and 50 years ago. These international research efforts were not free from geopolitical interests.

    • Simon Naylor
    • Martin Siegert
    • Simone Turchetti
  • Geoscientists explain women's under-representation in our field along three dominant themes: the structure of academia, historically low numbers of women, and women's views and choices. Which factor they perceive as most important depends overwhelmingly on their gender.

    • Mary Anne Holmes
    • Suzanne O'Connell
    • Lois Ongley