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Read our July issue

This month features articles on Martian frost, Antarctic slush, historical Nile floods, and more.


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    * Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals

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    * Wind, water and dust on Mars

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  • Oxygen is generated abiotically at the abyssal seafloor in the presence of polymetallic nodules, potentially by seawater electrolysis, according to in situ chamber and ex situ incubation experiments.

    • Andrew K. Sweetman
    • Alycia J. Smith
    • Jeffrey J. Marlow
    Brief CommunicationOpen Access
  • Groundwater supplies about 59% of global river flow, suggesting a larger contribution of groundwater to the global water cycle than currently appreciated, according to an analysis integrating estimates from models and observations.

    • Jiaxin Xie
    • Xiaomang Liu
    • Sujan Koirala
  • The increasing use of manufactured sand in China since 2010 has greatly reduced the proportion of natural sand in the country’s total sand supply, from 80% in 1995 to 21% in 2020, according to a material flow analysis of sand in China.

    • Heming Wang
    • Peng Wang
    • Yong-Guan Zhu
    Brief Communication
  • Earth system models project that lake temperatures will warm beyond the range of natural variability to which aquatic ecosystems are adapted in the coming decades, with conditions exceeding natural analogues sooner at lower latitudes.

    • Lei Huang
    • R. Iestyn Woolway
    • Ryohei Yamaguchi
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Core processes, dynamically linked to mantle and climate-related surface processes, contribute to both the long-term trend and shorter-term fluctuations observed in Earth’s polar motion, according to predictions from physics-informed neural networks.

    • Mostafa Kiani Shahvandi
    • Surendra Adhikari
    • Benedikt Soja
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Simple silica exists in many forms on Earth, as Falko Langenhorst explains. Some of these polymorphs can shed light on the Earth’s violent past.

    • Falko Langenhorst
    All Minerals Considered
  • Artificial intelligence tools have the potential to revolutionize how scientists work and publish. We share our ground rules for managing the inherent risks.

  • Hydrous minerals within the Earth affect volatile cycling and mantle geodynamics. Jun Tsuchiya explains how stable phases of these minerals are being uncovered at increasingly high pressures.

    • Jun Tsuchiya
    All Minerals Considered
  • Cloud uncertainties have been a persistent problem in climate science, but innovative approaches are starting to make headway.

A schematic illustration of Earth with a quarter removed to show its internal structure.

Constraints on mantle heterogeneity

Understanding the heterogeneities in Earth’s mantle, including their origin, structure, and variability, is crucial for comprehending the long-term history of internal changes that have shaped our planet.


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