Volume 22 Issue 9, September 2019

Volume 22 Issue 9

The cover depicts a sad, anxious or sick mouse sitting on a small island surrounded by an ocean of neurons, unable to socially interact, explore or feed. This is a metaphor for the function of the insular cortex, also called the ‘island of the brain’ (‘insula’ is the Latin word for ‘island’). In this study, Gehrlach et al. reveal how the posterior part of the insula processes and regulates aversive emotional and bodily internal states and mediates inhibition of ongoing rewarding and exploratory behaviors.

See Gehrlach et al

Image credit: Julia Kuhl. Cover design: Marina Corral Spence.

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation generates toxic repeat proteins from pathological repeat expansions found in certain neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. How to suppress RAN translation has so far been unknown. A new study now reports a selective regulator of RAN translation identified in a genetic screen in yeast.

    • Saskia Hutten
    •  & Dorothee Dormann
  • News & Views |

    A new study sheds light on how sensitivity to communication sounds is established in the brain. Juvenile finches raised with tutors of either the same or different species always learned the tutors’ songs. Cortical neurons developed selectivity for the learned song by tuning for its secondary acoustic features.

    • Aaron Williams
    •  & Maria N. Geffen

Brief Communications

  • Brief Communication |

    A nucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mutation causes production of aberrant proteins by an enigmatic form of translation. Yamada et al. identify that RPS25 is required for this form of translation.

    • Shizuka B. Yamada
    • , Tania F. Gendron
    • , Teresa Niccoli
    • , Naomi R. Genuth
    • , Rosslyn Grosely
    • , Yingxiao Shi
    • , Idoia Glaria
    • , Nicholas J. Kramer
    • , Lisa Nakayama
    • , Shirleen Fang
    • , Tai J. I. Dinger
    • , Annora Thoeng
    • , Gabriel Rocha
    • , Maria Barna
    • , Joseph D. Puglisi
    • , Linda Partridge
    • , Justin K. Ichida
    • , Adrian M. Isaacs
    • , Leonard Petrucelli
    •  & Aaron D. Gitler
  • Brief Communication |

    Tost et al. show that urban green space exposure improves well-being, particularly in people dwelling in relatively deprived areas and showing less prefrontal activity during emotion processing, a neural signature that is linked to mental health risk.

    • Heike Tost
    • , Markus Reichert
    • , Urs Braun
    • , Iris Reinhard
    • , Robin Peters
    • , Sven Lautenbach
    • , Andreas Hoell
    • , Emanuel Schwarz
    • , Ulrich Ebner-Priemer
    • , Alexander Zipf
    •  & Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

Articles

  • Article |

    This study identifies eight significant genetic associations with intrusive reexperiencing of trauma in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the Million Veteran Program (MVP), a large biobank focused on US veterans.

    • Joel Gelernter
    • , Ning Sun
    • , Renato Polimanti
    • , Robert. Pietrzak
    • , Daniel F. Levey
    • , Julien Bryois
    • , Qiongshi Lu
    • , Yiming Hu
    • , Boyang Li
    • , Krishnan Radhakrishnan
    • , Mihaela Aslan
    • , Kei-Hoi Cheung
    • , Yuli Li
    • , Nallakkandi Rajeevan
    • , Frederick Sayward
    • , Kelly Harrington
    • , Quan Chen
    • , Kelly Cho
    • , Saiju Pyarajan
    • , Patrick F. Sullivan
    • , Rachel Quaden
    • , Yunling Shi
    • , Haley Hunter-Zinck
    • , J. Michael Gaziano
    • , John Concato
    • , Hongyu Zhao
    •  & Murray B. Stein
  • Article |

    Breen et al. map RNA editing profiles in cortical samples from individuals with schizophrenia and controls, and find links between altered RNA editing in glutamatergic and postsynaptic density genes and schizophrenia genetic risk architecture.

    • Michael S. Breen
    • , Amanda Dobbyn
    • , Qin Li
    • , Panos Roussos
    • , Gabriel E. Hoffman
    • , Eli Stahl
    • , Andrew Chess
    • , Pamela Sklar
    • , Jin Billy Li
    • , Bernie Devlin
    • , Joseph D. Buxbaum
    • , Schahram Akbarian
    • , Jaroslav Bendl
    • , Kristen Brennand
    • , Leanne Brown
    • , Andrew Browne
    • , Alexander Charney
    • , Lizette Couto
    • , Greg Crawford
    • , Olivia Devillers
    • , Enrico Domenici
    • , Michele Filosi
    • , Elie Flatow
    • , Nancy Francoeur
    • , John F. Fullard
    • , Sergio Espeso Gil
    • , Kiran Girdhar
    • , Attila Gulyás-Kovács
    • , Raquel Gur
    • , Chang-Gyu Hahn
    • , Vahram Haroutunian
    • , Mads Engel Hauberg
    • , Laura Huckins
    • , Rivky Jacobov
    • , Yan Jiang
    • , Jessica S. Johnson
    • , Bibi Kassim
    • , Yungil Kim
    • , Lambertus Klei
    • , Robin Kramer
    • , Mario Lauria
    • , Thomas Lehner
    • , David A. Lewis
    • , Barbara K. Lipska
    • , Stefano Marenco
    • , Lara M. Mangravite
    • , Kelsey Montgomery
    • , Royce Park
    • , Thanneer Malai Perumal
    • , Mette A. Peters
    • , Chaggai Rosenbluh
    • , Douglas M. Ruderfer
    • , Geetha Senthil
    • , Hardik R. Shah
    • , Solveig K. Sieberts
    • , Laura Sloofman
    • , Lingyun Song
    • , Patrick Sullivan
    • , Roberto Visintainer
    • , Jiebiao Wang
    • , Ying-Chih Wang
    • , Jennifer Wiseman
    • , Eva Xia
    • , Wen Zhang
    •  & Elizabeth Zharovsky
  • Article |

    Researchers identify a transcriptional network engaged in stress-resilient mice that is regulated by a previously unstudied transcription factor, Zfp189, and elucidate molecular mechanisms controlling this network and resilience behavior.

    • Zachary S. Lorsch
    • , Peter J. Hamilton
    • , Aarthi Ramakrishnan
    • , Eric M. Parise
    • , Marine Salery
    • , William J. Wright
    • , Ashley E. Lepack
    • , Philipp Mews
    • , Orna Issler
    • , Andrew McKenzie
    • , Xianxiao Zhou
    • , Lyonna F. Parise
    • , Stephen T. Pirpinias
    • , Idelisse Ortiz Torres
    • , Hope G. Kronman
    • , Sarah E. Montgomery
    • , Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh
    • , Benoit Labonté
    • , Andrew Conkey
    • , Ann E. Symonds
    • , Rachael L. Neve
    • , Gustavo Turecki
    • , Ian Maze
    • , Yan Dong
    • , Bin Zhang
    • , Li Shen
    • , Rosemary C. Bagot
    •  & Eric J. Nestler
  • Article |

    Gehrlach et al. show how the posterior insular cortex processes and modulates diverse internally and externally generated aversive states, and they dissect the functional contribution of segregated projections mediating inhibition of ongoing behaviors.

    • Daniel A. Gehrlach
    • , Nejc Dolensek
    • , Alexandra S. Klein
    • , Ritu Roy Chowdhury
    • , Arthur Matthys
    • , Michaela Junghänel
    • , Thomas N. Gaitanos
    • , Alja Podgornik
    • , Thomas D. Black
    • , Narasimha Reddy Vaka
    • , Karl-Klaus Conzelmann
    •  & Nadine Gogolla
  • Article |

    Laboy-Juárez et al. show that barrel cortex neurons in mice are tuned for elementary multi-whisker sequences that represent tactile motion, using a computation similar to motion direction selectivity in vision. These findings provide a novel view of columnar organization.

    • Keven J. Laboy-Juárez
    • , Tomer Langberg
    • , Seoiyoung Ahn
    •  & Daniel E. Feldman
  • Article |

    Green et al. find that, when their internal heading estimate is rotated via neural stimulation, flies turn their body in a direction that aims to return their heading estimate back to its previous value. This suggests the heading estimate is compared with an internal goal to guide navigation.

    • Jonathan Green
    • , Vikram Vijayan
    • , Peter Mussells Pires
    • , Atsuko Adachi
    •  & Gaby Maimon
  • Article |

    Like humans, songbirds learn to communicate vocally early in life. Moore and Woolley taught birds the songs of a different species to identify how vocal experience and auditory tuning mechanisms create neural representations of communication sounds.

    • Jordan M. Moore
    •  & Sarah M. N. Woolley
  • Article |

    Detecting and responding to noxious stimuli is essential for survival. Wee et al. show that noxious stimuli elicit intense and widespread activity in zebrafish oxytocin neurons, which promote defensive behavior by activating hindbrain premotor neurons.

    • Caroline L. Wee
    • , Maxim Nikitchenko
    • , Wei-Chun Wang
    • , Sasha J. Luks-Morgan
    • , Erin Song
    • , James A. Gagnon
    • , Owen Randlett
    • , Isaac H. Bianco
    • , Alix M. B. Lacoste
    • , Elena Glushenkova
    • , Joshua P. Barrios
    • , Alexander F. Schier
    • , Samuel Kunes
    • , Florian Engert
    •  & Adam D. Douglass
  • Article |

    Using data from rats and humans, the authors study the time it takes to make sensory judgments. The authors define the new regularity as the time–intensity equivalence in discrimination (TIED), which provides a mechanistic basis of Weber’s law.

    • Jose L. Pardo-Vazquez
    • , Juan R. Castiñeiras-de Saa
    • , Mafalda Valente
    • , Iris Damião
    • , Tiago Costa
    • , M. Inês Vicente
    • , André G. Mendonça
    • , Zachary F. Mainen
    •  & Alfonso Renart
  • Article |

    Everyday decisions require choosing among multiple options. This work derives the optimal decision policy and shows how it can be approximated by a biologically plausible neural circuit and how this circuit can reproduce observed behavior.

    • Satohiro Tajima
    • , Jan Drugowitsch
    • , Nisheet Patel
    •  & Alexandre Pouget
  • Article |

    Neural populations often encode unknown variables. Chaudhuri et al. develop a method to decode unknown variables by finding shapes in neural data. They show that a mammalian brain circuit of thousands of neurons constructs a navigational compass with only a one-dimensional ring of stable activity states.

    • Rishidev Chaudhuri
    • , Berk Gerçek
    • , Biraj Pandey
    • , Adrien Peyrache
    •  & Ila Fiete

Resources

Amendments & Corrections