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Volume 21 Issue 2, February 2018

High salt diet and brain health

In this issue of Nature Neuroscience, Iadecola and colleagues report that salt overconsumption leads to endothelial dysfunction, a decrease in resting cerebral blood flow and cognitive deficits in mice. These effects are caused by increases in TH17 immune cells in the gut and in circulating levels of IL-17, unraveling a previously unsuspected gut–brain axis linked to dietary salt consumption.

See Faraco et al. 21, 245–254 (2018)

Image: MirageC/Moment/Getty Images. Cover Design: Erin Dewalt.

Obituary

  • Pamela Sklar, Chair of the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences and endowed Professor of Psychiatric Genetics at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, died 20 November 2017 after a long illness.

    • Patrick F. Sullivan
    • Michael C. O’Donovan
    • Nick Craddock
    Obituary

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  • On 20 October 2017, John Lisman passed away at the age of 73. Neuroscience lost a great luminary.

    • Adam Kepecs
    Obituary
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News & Views

  • Excessive dietary salt can impair cerebral blood flow regulation, resulting in cognitive dysfunction in mice. A ‘gut–brain’ pathway is implicated that links expansion of TH17 lymphocytes in small intestine to elevated bloodstream interleukin-17, which impairs brain perfusion by decreasing nitric oxide production in brain vascular endothelium.

    • Mohammed A. Shaik
    • Elizabeth M. C. Hillman
    News & Views
  • Compromised compartmentalization of nucleus and cytoplasm has emerged as a central feature of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Nucleocytoplasmic transport is disrupted, with widespread mislocalization of nuclear pore proteins, in TDP-43 proteinopathies such as, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.

    • Nan Li
    • Clotilde Lagier-Tourenne

    Nature Outlook:

    News & Views
  • An extensive single-cell transcriptomic collection of over 30,000 cells of the developing hippocampus shows that adult hippocampal neurogenesis follows the same differentiation path as embryonic neurogenesis, but the cell of origin differs. This work provides an invaluable resource with important implications for neuronal regeneration.

    • Ben W. Dulken
    • Anne Brunet
    News & Views
  • Neuroimaging studies of human entorhinal cortex activity revealed 60-degree spatial periodicity, a hallmark of grid cells, as gaze movements were made throughout the visual field. This activity may serve as a framework for organizing visuospatial memory.

    • Nathaniel J. Killian
    • Elizabeth A. Buffalo
    News & Views
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Review Articles

  • Polanía, Nitsche and Ruff summarize the state of non-invasive brain stimulation research in humans, discuss some current debates about properties and limitations of these methods, and give recommendations for how these challenges may be addressed.

    • Rafael Polanía
    • Michael A. Nitsche
    • Christian C. Ruff
    Review Article
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Brief Communications

  • fMRI activity in human entorhinal cortex is modulated by eye-movement direction with 60° periodicity, implicating a grid cell-like code in mapping visual space. This suggests a role for entorhinal grid coding in cognition beyond spatial navigation.

    • Matthias Nau
    • Tobias Navarro Schröder
    • Christian F. Doeller
    Brief Communication
  • The authors show that human entorhinal cortex supports a grid cell-like representation of visual space. This visual grid pattern is stably anchored to the external visual world in a fashion analogous to rodent grid representations of navigable space.

    • Joshua B. Julian
    • Alexandra T. Keinath
    • Russell A. Epstein
    Brief Communication
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